John Coltrane: Beyond the Holy Mountain

This month marks the 50th anniversary of the passing of John Coltrane, one of the true musical giants of the 20th century whose monumental legacy casts a considerable shadow across jazz and out into the wider artistic world. With the recent release of his wife Alice’s ashram recordings, The Ecstatic Music of Alice Coltrane Turiyasangitananda, and his son Ravi’s ongoing ascent to the upper echelons of contemporary jazz, Kevin Le Gendre examines how the iconic saxophonist’s work continues to influence music, art and spirituality today

Jazz has been marked by notable early deaths. Clifford Brown, Booker Little and Scott LaFaro are among some of the most deeply lamented tragedians, cut down in their prime, before they had reached their thirties, a stage in life often fruitful for those with ideas and talent.

John Coltrane succumbed to liver cancer at the age of 41 in 1967, but by that time he had produced a body of work so rich it secured him a status of prophet pathfinder who embodies certain ideals in the creative act, regardless of whether or not it is allocated the term ‘jazz’. It is not so much that Coltrane’s flame was prematurely extinguished, but more that he, like one of his role models, Charlie Parker, managed to blaze a luminous trail into his truncated time on earth, so that the size of his discography, 45 studio sets (as co-leader and leader) and 11 lives, is matched by its far-reaching influence. That untimely demise has just served to brighten the halo of overachievement around our hero’s head. Above all, the saxophone virtuoso represented inspiration to many others.

 

“Coltrane possessed a rare gift for affecting listeners through an intense focus on sound”

 

Rashied Ali, a member of one of Coltrane’s last bands, said: “When Coltrane died the avant-garde died with him, something died with him, the leader.” Whether or not the sub-genre or school to which the saxophonist putatively belonged was indeed ‘free’ or ‘new music’, or a sound beyond the superficialities of genre, the point was made with conviction, if not deeply held reverence, simply because the term leader suffixed considerably much more than a band in Coltrane’s case.

There was also stewardship in a wider sense, whereby he would be an exemplar, if not figurehead, to whom his peers and successors would look. Which is entirely logical when one considers that, along with Sonny Rollins, he helped to define an integral part of the contemporary vocabulary of his chosen instrument, the saxophone, and that he brought a towering gravitas to his epic concert appearances.

The presence of the Coltrane name in other guises – his late, also influential wife Alice and their saxophonist son Ravi, who is active today on his own musical terms – provides an interesting sub-plot to the central story of the man who opened new musical doors for others.

John Coltrane is undoubtedly a jazz icon of the highest order. Whether or not his leviathan stature as an improviser casts a shadow on his relevance to a world beyond art music is a moot point though. In fact, locating his oeuvre within a single idiomatic space is problematic when one considers the marked difference between the various phases of a career that concludes with the structural abstractions, if not opacity, of 1965’s Om and Expression, but also boasts the intricate, invigorating quicksilver swing of 1959’s Giant Steps, the latticed orchestrations of Africa Brass, and the spellbinding modal praise songs of 1964’s A Love Supreme. There was Coltrane the composer-sound seeker-concept maker who assumed several guises all framed by Coltrane, the driven, all-consuming improviser.

Coltrane possessed a rare gift for affecting listeners through an intense focus on sound, sometimes by nothing other than a single short phrase, so as we consider all of those flights of fancy in which he dissects the finer points of tonality, chord and scale, to the extent that he seemingly destroys and recreates the essence of a song, then it’s worth remembering he could also be at his most compelling when performing an underrated function in jazz: playing a melody. Coltrane’s sensitivity, sincerity and clarity renders ‘Naima’, a love song, in the most engagingly tender way, which makes it as relevant to the canon of pop music as anthems like George Gershwin’s ‘I Loves You Porgy’, Aretha Franklin’s ‘Natural Woman’, and Willie Nelson’s ‘Crazy’. ‘Naima’ features a solo by pianist Wynton Kelly, not Coltrane.

His formative years in Philadelphia and his full maturity in New York afforded experiences rich enough to heighten that kind of editorial wisdom. The gigs with Miles Davis, Thelonious Monk, and George Russell, those preternatural progressives who could hear what others could not, were vital to his development, but of equal note is the music made with alto saxophonist Earl Bostic and vibraphonist Milt Jackson. 1961’s Bags & Trane is a reminder of Coltrane’s worth as an exponent of blues and R&B. At times the set comes tantalisingly close to the work of Ray Charles insofar as it generates the warmth, the goodness, the joyousness, the ‘soul’ of which he was the harbinger.

Furthermore, there was a clear parallel between some of the mechanics of Coltrane’s later work and those of the outré architects of funk, a specific tangent of soul. With James Brown, John Coltrane shared a sonic density, an uncut heaviness, a conception of mountains of sound. Look at the tools and techniques they deployed: doubling of instruments (guitars and voices for JB, basses and reeds for JC, drum kits for both); integration of African percussion; expansion of performance length. Both engaged in a supersizing of groove and emotional intensity. Both probe turbulence, if not violence in timbre. Both take a ‘no compromise’ stance. The points of divergence between Brown and Coltrane should not blind us to those of convergence.

While we see Coltrane’s energy shape early 1970s independent American and European jazz, from ‘deep’ or ‘spiritual’ labels like Strata East and Tribe to players like Frank Lowe and Evan Parker, his permeation of improv-inclined rock bands such as the Grateful Dead and instrumental soul-funk combos is also discernible, even though the danceable sound of these acts appears alien to his own. However, the acknowledgement of his impact is writ large all around. If Clifford Jordan recorded ‘John Coltrane’ then Kool & The Gang penned ‘I Remember John W. Coltrane’.

Members of Kool, in their early guise as the Jazziacs, admired and may well have played with some of Coltrane’s trusted sidemen, Pharoah Sanders and McCoy Tyner in New York, but what is equally important is the path of the pianist who replaced the latter, John’s wife Alice. She took the harp John himself had purchased for her and made it an integral part of work that saw her probe jazz, gospel, blues and Indian musical traditions as she embraced the teachings of a guru, Satchidananda, and became a ‘swamini’, or spiritual leader herself.

Alice’s unwavering faith led her to withdraw from commercial recording altogether in the late 1970s, but that should not deflect attention from her Warner and Impulse! albums. They stand as kith and kin to that of the illustrious spouse who encouraged her. “John not only taught me to explore, but to play thoroughly and completely,” she once said.

As the recently released CD The Ecstatic Music of Alice Coltrane Turiyasangitananda shows she recorded music at her ashram that availed itself of state of the art technology. Her use of synthesisers and electronics, often betraying advanced study of European classical orchestration, imbued her work with striking otherworldly nuances. At times, the hymnal themes conspire to soar right to the heavens.

Taken together, the music of John and Alice thus covers a wide electro-acoustic spectrum. Where the former innovated ‘unplugged’, the latter crafted novel resonances by ‘plugging in’, especially on that reedy, waspish wurlitzer organ. But the common denominator between the two composers was sublime tone poetry. You can call it ambiance, mood, or mantra, but the feeling generated was startling and has reached far into the more discerning end of modern music. Consider the chain: John inspires Alice; Alice finds her voice; Alice becomes a cult; anybody from Radiohead to Laura Veirs hails her great songbook.

Alice is a substantive part of John’s procession because, while her music grew from his to a large degree, it was not bound by it. In both cases there was an immense strength of character that is instructive to anybody who is serious about creating something really new in art. Above all there was a daring. A challenge to the self as well as to others to the extent that the idea of category or boundary between schools becomes irrelevant.

Fittingly, the latin-rock and soul artists who felt the Coltranes’ spirit and channelled it to pastures new were one-offs. Consider these incumbents: Carlos Santana covers John (Love Devotion Surrender) and records with Alice (Illuminations). Stevie Wonder plays John’s music on stage (‘Giant Steps’) and in the studio fashions something that has the unorthodoxy of Alice (The Secret Life Of Plants). Coltrane had disciples, the Coltranes’ gifted musical devotees.

Having said that, the second son Alice bore John, Ravi, has become a force in his own right, having overcome the none too enviable handicap of being the saxophonist son of one of the greatest of all. “I’ve seen a lot of guys hit a Coltrane wall!” said modern day tenor titan David Murray, in reference to the dead end that can await those who take an overly reverential, ultimately imitative road to the legend. John is unavoidable, but, paradoxically, he’s also to be avoided if one is to really do justice to what he stood for. Yet Ravi is not just the child of John. He is the child of Alice too, and draws inspiration from both of his parents, as human beings as well as legendary musicians.

Since his emergence in the mid-1990s, as a sideman to such as Steve Coleman, Billy Childs and Bheki Mseleku, Ravi has developed a very impressive creative voice of his own, and his original writing on albums such as Moving Pictures, From The Round Box and Spirit Fiction is excellent. His recent work in Jack DeJohnette’s trio, exemplified on 2016’s superb CD In Movement, reflects his full artistic maturity.

 

“Coltrane explored dualities: individual voice and collective energy; single mind and plural expression; local culture and universal consciousness; a sound that is ‘in’ and ‘out’”

 

That band is actually a vital entwinement of several historical strands. Alongside Ravi is bassist Matthew Garrison, son of Jimmy, a member of John Coltrane’s classic quartet, and DeJohnette sat in with John and recorded with Ravi’s mother Alice, both in her Impulse! period and on her gorgeous 2007 ‘out of retirement’ set, Translinear Light. In other words, rich chapters of jazz history coalesce in this small group with big ideas, an ensemble of different generations of players who are bound by common cause.

Indeed, the sustained development of DeJohnette, Garrison and Coltrane Jr is proof positive that musicians with a degree of courage can circumnavigate the ‘Coltrane wall’ described by Murray, and that a real handle on Coltrane, conceptually as well as sonically, will enable an artist to paint a portrait of their true self rather than produce a facsimile of another, no matter how well burnished the image.

As Denys Baptiste shows on The Late Trane it is entirely possible to acknowledge the genius of John Coltrane without being overwhelmed by it, precisely because Baptiste thought wisely about the intriguing relationship between art and pop music, reminding us that folk forms were also an essential part of the great innovator’s world view. Seen from the vantage point of the 21st century the idea and meaning of John Coltrane is immensely appealing for reasons of integrity if not idealism, an unstinting pursuit of one’s personal vision that will lead a skilled musician wherever they have to go, even if that means wailing, hollering and moaning in the middle of a concert, as was the case on the mesmerising 1965 Pharoah Sanders-guesting Seattle performance.

Coltrane explored dualities: individual voice and collective energy; single mind and plural expression; local culture and universal consciousness; a sound that is ‘in’ and ‘out’. All of which invites us to think about our ultimate perception of him. He may be a monumental part of jazz heritage, but he also leaves a blues legacy, one that does much more than swing into song forms of 12 bars with pitches bent towards desolation and salvation. Coltrane bequeaths a puzzle on what we really know, from a philosophical, social and political, as well as musical standpoint, of the blues, a phenomenon born of yesterday that still speaks to the mannish boy and motherless child of tomorrow.

 

Photo by of John Coltrane by Chuck Stewart, courtesy of Impulse!

Photo of Alice Coltrane by Sri Hari Moss

This article originally appeared in the July 2017 issue of Jazzwise. To find out more about subscribing, please visit: www.jazzwisemagazine.com/subscribe

Thelonious Monk: essential recordings

A completely unique pianist and composer, Thelonious Monk was born 100 years ago, in October 1917. His recordings (both live and in the studio) continue to inspire jazz musicians today, and many of his albums – perhaps most notably Brilliant Corners – remain essential listening. Here's a quick overview of just a few of his finest moments on record, complete with Jazzwise reviews...

 

Monk Brilliant CornersBrilliant Corners

Poll Winners Records | ★★★★★

Thelonious Monk (p), Clark Terry (t) Sonny Rollins (ts), Ernie Henry (as), Oscar Pettiford, Paul Chambers, Tommy Potter (b), Max Roach and Art Taylor (d). Rec. 1954 and 1956

Today, musicians tackle Monk’s music with apparent ease to where it has now become repertory. But it wasn’t always like that. Back then, it really separated the men from the boys. Brilliant in both title and content this album may well be, but by all accounts it was a bitch to make. The title track being patched together, by producer Orrin Keepnews, from fragments of no less than 25 incomplete takes. But seemingly, the three separate sessions that were needed to actually complete the five original tracks were all fraught with tension and frustration. For instance only four tracks use horns: while Rollins appears on all four, Ernie Henry plays on three while Clark Terry is only heard on ‘Bemsha Swing’. To make up for a shortfall in time, an unaccompanied Monk slipped behind the keyboard to rework ‘I Surrender, Dear.’ Perhaps because this was far from being a conveyor belt blowing session, all the participants had to face up to what became a real challenge when not only getting to grips with the dangerous curves that beset the title track but also ‘Ba-Lue Bolivar BaLues-Are’ and ‘Pannonica’. Whatever the motivation, both Rollins and Henry seldom played better than right here. And the eventual outcome? One of the truly great indispensible albums. Do note, having slipped into the public domain in terms of copyright, versions of Brilliant Corners are mushrooming. The only difference between this release and the official reissue is the addition of three tracks taped two years earlier. Other than that, it has the same sleeve design and sleeve note. Roy Carr

 

 

Monk ColtraneThelonious Monk with John Coltrane

Riverside/OJC Remaster | ★★★★★

Thelonious Monk (p), Ray Copeland (t), Gigi Gryce (as), John Coltrane, Coleman Hawkins (ts), Wilbur Ware (b), Art Blakey and Shadow Wilson (d). Rec. 1957

For decades these sessions remained tantalising evidence of what might have been. In 1957, Coltrane was trying to reconcile the world of the junkie with the world of a successful musician in the most high-profile sideman gig in jazz as a member of the Miles Davis Quintet. It wasn’t working out and after a run at the Café Bohemia which ended on 28 April, Davis, exasperated with his sideman’s unpredictability, unceremoniously fired him. Coltrane seized the opportunity of getting his life in order, and during a two-week period in May apparently won the battle against heroin. He had earlier begun to rehearse informally with Monk, and ‘Monk’s Mood’ from 12 April included here was actually recorded while Coltrane was still with Davis. From that point Coltrane began to see more of Monk, rehearsing informally during the summer of that year. The June session with a larger ensemble includes Coleman Hawkins, with whom Monk first recorded with as a sideman in the 1940s and who was an early influence on Coltrane. According to trumpeter Ray Copeland, Coltrane was nodding off during ‘Well You Needn’t’ and Monk called “Coltrane, Coltrane” to indicate his solo turn. Coltrane comes in immediately, surely more ready than Copeland thought. Soon after, possibly 18 July, Coltrane joined Monk’s trio making it a quartet at the Five Spot at 5 Cooper Square in Greenwich Village – a collaboration that has subsequently acquired the stuff of legend – in a residency that lasted for most of 1957. Lewis Porter, Coltrane’s most lucid biographer, reports that most listeners present during this period were overwhelmed, citing quotes by J. J. Johnson and Francois Postif that only add to myths that swirl around this historic moment in jazz history.

Coltrane has always credited Monk for the significant artistic growth he experienced during the latter period of 1957. An indication of where he was headed can be heard on the quartet track ‘Trinkle, Tinkle’ from July 1957, albeit there were many months of nightly magic on the bandstand to pass under the bridge at this stage. During the tenure of the Five Spot gig, Coltrane’s stature as a musician grew visibly with the result that he was in the recording studios an incredible ten times, twice as a leader for Prestige, once for a special session for Blue Note and the rest as a sideman. Yet for all the historic significance of these Riverside recordings, we get is an incomplete picture of Coltrane’s artistic development with Monk and for years jazz historians have yearned for elusive evidence of his final leap into greatness (something that was by no means apparent to contemporaneous observers at the beginning of 1957, including Orrin Keepnews who produced the Monk/Coltrane Riverside dates). Over the decades writers have expressed exasperation that Riverside (who would later record Monk with Johnny Griffin live at the very same Five Spot club) did not document this incredibly important partnership with live recordings.

As if in answer to a maiden’s prayer, in 2005 Larry Apelbaum of the Library of Congress stumbled on a set of previously unknown recording of a Carnegie Hall concert by this group from 29 November 1957. On the nine tracks issued on Thelonious Monk Quartet with John Coltrane at Carnegie Hall we finally get an indication of how far the rehabilitated Coltrane had travelled during this time, a snapshot more valuable than even these historic Riverside recordings, but that, as they say, is another story. Stuart Nicholson

 

 

Monk TrioThelonious Monk Trio

Essential Jazz Classics | ★★★★ 

Thelonious Monk (p), Al McKibbon, Nelson Boyd, Gary Mapp, Percy Heath (b) and Art Blakey, Max Roach, Roy Haynes (d). Rec. 23 July 1951-7 July 1958

Monk plays Duke Ellington/The Unique Thelonious Monk

Essential Jazz Classics | ★★★★ 

Thelonious Monk (p), Oscar Pettiford (b) and Kenny Clarke, Art Blakey (d). Rec. 21 July 1955-3 April 1956

There’s some serious stuff on these two reissues, especially the Monk Trio. Mostly consisting of the three relevant Prestige dates, it’s supplemented by two trio tunes from his last Blue Note sessions plus the famous Newport set with Roy Haynes (in reasonably good sound). Apart from five standards, we get Monk tunes such as ‘Trinkle Tinkle’ and ‘Little Rootie Tootie’, nearly all in their debut versions except for ‘Round Midnight’ and ‘Blue Monk’ at Newport. The difference with the Ellington/Unique pairing, comprising his first Riverside albums, is that he was focussing exclusively on standards in often quirky renditions (e.g. ‘Tea For Two’ totally reharmonised with the sequence of Monk’s ‘Skippy’). Brian Priestley

 

 

Monk TriosComplete 1947-56 Trios

Essential Jazz Classics | ★★★★ 

Thelonious Monk (p), Gene Ramey, Al McKibbon. Nelson Boyd, Gary Mapp, Percy Heath, Oscar Pettiford (b) Art Blakey, Max Roach and Kenny Clarke (d). Rec. 24 Oct 1947-3 Apr 1956

The EJC label is well named in this case, although the contents render redundant an earlier CD of Monk’s first two Riverside albums (well almost, since the two solo tracks from them plus the Prestige ‘Just A Gigolo’, are omitted here – because they’re not trios). This is important music and, with the passage of time, it becomes more evident that Monk was essentially a pianist, leaving horn-players the task of replicating his piano rather than writing anything specifically for them. Combining all the non-horn Blue Note and Prestige material (including four standards) with the Riversides makes this invaluable. Brian Priestley

 

 

Monk Round MidnightRound Midnight: Complete Blue Note Singles (1947-1952)

Blue Note | ★★★★

Thelonious Monk (p), Idrees Sulieman, George Taitt, Kenny Dorham (t), Danny Quebec West, Sahib Shihab, Lou Donaldson (as), Billy Smith, Lucky Thompson (ts), Milt Jackson (vib), Gene Ramey, Robert Paige, John Simmons, Al McKibbon, Nelson Boyd (b), Art Blakey, Shadow Wilson, Max Roach (d) and Kenny Hagood (v). Rec. 15 October 1947-30 May 1952

We’re told the jukebox was invented in 1890, but it certainly came of age in Depression-era America, and it not only ‘downloaded’ individual singles but eventually encouraged over-the-counter sales too. Logically then, the programming of the current release follows the order in which the singles appeared, rather than the strict order of recording, so there’s a greater variety of instrumentation than we’re accustomed to track-to-track, with different sessions providing each other’s A and B sides. (Did you know that ‘Round Midnight’ was first backed with ‘Well You Needn’t’, two future standards for the price of one?) Of course, the reissue then cheats by augmenting those 29 singles tracks with the 14 extra takes and three whole new tunes that surfaced in the LP era, so this is as complete as any previous reissue. Oddly, I can see no credits for remastering and, apart from a higher volume level, this sounds the same as earlier Rudy Van Gelder remasters – i.e. very good. You ask about the music? As well as the original versions of classic tunes, we have Monk at his most intense and concentrated so, if you don’t have the material, you need to now. Brian Priestley

 

 

Monk RollinsThelonious Monk & Sonny Rollins Complete Recordings

Essential Jazz Classics | ★★★★

Thelonious Monk (p), Sonny Rollins (ts) with (coll. pers.) Clark Terry (t), J.J. Johnson (tb), Julius Watkins (frhn), Ernie Henry (as), Percy Heath, Tommy Potter, Oscar Pettiford, Paul Chambers (b) and Willie Jones, Art Taylor, Max Roach, Art Blakey (d) plus (bonus tracks) Fats Navarro, Clifford Brown (t), Bud Powell, Richie Powell, Horace Silver (p), George Morrow (b) and Roy Haynes (d). Rec. 8 August 1949-14 April 1957

This is the real deal, and Essential Jazz Classics is clearly the right label for such an intelligent compilation. Obviously it’s not all quite as brilliant as Brilliant Corners, but that’s here as well as is the entirety of Blue Note’s Sonny Rollins Vol.2 with J.J. Johnson, where Thelonious (splitting the piano work with Horace Silver) appears on ‘Reflections’ and ‘Misterioso’. An even greater service is done by bringing together tracks formerly spread over several OJC albums, namely Monk’s Friday The 13th session (with Rollins and the pioneer french-hornist Julius Watkins) and Rollins’ ‘I Want To Be Happy’ quartet date, where Monk gets relatively little space because Sonny was so energised. There’s a palpable sense of both leading parties stretching and discovering themselves, despite the 13-year age-gap, and these four groups of material are absorbing and irreplaceable. That’s all they wrote together, but even the bonus material is of interest, with the young Rollins on Bud Powell’s version of ‘52nd Street Theme’ and an airshot previously unknown to me of the Roach-Brown-Rollins group playing ‘Round Midnight’. Even those who already have much of this material may be tempted by this collection. Brian Priestley

 

Monk classicThree Classic Albums Plus

Plus Avid Jazz | ★★★★

Thelonious Monk (p) with (coll. pers.) Donald Byrd, Thad Jones (t), Eddie Bert (tb), Robert Northern (frhn), Jay McAllister (tu), Phil Woods (as), Charlie Rouse (ts), Pepper Adams (bs), Oscar Pettiford, Henry Grimes, Sam Jones (b) and Art Blakey, Roy Haynes and Art Taylor (d). Rec. 17 March 1956-2 June 1959

Monk is on superior form in each of these original albums, namely The Unique T.M. (with Pettiford and Blakey), the famous At Town Hall, and 5 By Monk By 5 with a quintet featuring Rouse and Thad Jones. Compared to more routine material from the 1960s, this is a reminder of how energetic and inventive Monk was, when he was just approaching wider public acceptance. In particular, the opening trio album has his reharmonised versions of ‘Tea For Two’ and ‘Honeysuckle Rose’ (the former, though appearing on record for the first time, had already provided the chord-sequence for Monk’s 1952 recording, ‘Skippy’). The ‘big-band’ concert, while undoubtedly an ‘event’, is a mixed bag but a definite highlight is its orchestration of the pianist’s recorded choruses on ‘Little Rootie Tootie’. But the sleeper might be the quintet with Rouse (new in the job and still sounding enthusiastic) and the oblique Jones, using the same rhythm-section as At Town Hall. The ‘plus’ content consists of the 1958 Newport trio set with Grimes and Haynes (as seen in Jazz On A Summer’s Day), complete with announcements by Willis Conover. Fortunately, the reissue audio is presentable, if a bit toppy, while the Newport set sounds far clearer than on a previous CD release (Jazzwise 127) although that makes the slight flutter on the tapes more discernible. Brian Priestley

 

 

Monk ColtraneThelonious Monk/John Coltrane Complete Live At The Five Spot

Phoenix | ★★★★

Thelonious Monk (p), John Coltrane (ts), Ahmed Abdul-Malik/prob.Wilbur Ware (b) and Roy Haynes/prob. Shadow Wilson (d). Rec. July 1957-11 September 1958

Only discovered in the 1980s, this five-track, 44-minute recording first released by Blue Note was done with a table-top mic by Naima (Juanita) Coltrane. Dating not from the famous 1957 residency of Monk’s quartet with Trane, Ware and Wilson, but from a single night when Trane depped for Johnny Griffin, it has less than optimum sound, where the piano is prominent in the mono mix and the saxophone is several feet away. Everything he plays is audible and, when Monk lays out for several choruses at a time, it’s crystal clear how far Coltrane is developing his late-1950s style. Haynes is recognisable (and was paid retrospectively by Blue Note) but his ‘I Mean You’ is a collectors’ item, as the drum solo uncharacteristically speeds up and is cut off abruptly by Monk’s return. The remaining two tracks totalling 11 minutes, claimed as being from the same date and first added by Phoenix stablemate Gambit, have a cleaner balance ‘engineered’ by Nellie Monk, probably near the start of the original quartet’s stint. Either way, provided you get your head around the sound (better than many later Trane bootlegs), this is a fascinating document. Brian Priestley

 

thelonious aloneThelonious Alone in San Francisco

Poll Winners | ★★★★

Thelonious Monk (solo p) plus (four tracks each) Henry Grimes (b) and Roy Haynes (d). Rec. 7 July 1958-21 April 1961

The main album, whose cover-photo of Monk on a local streetcar is reproduced on this public-domain reissue, was done in 1959 at the same time as Riverside’s famous In San Francisco by Cannonball Adderley. Compared to that exciting and populist affair, this is a personal and introspective recital which doesn’t raise the temperature but gets close to the heart of Monk’s style. The breakdown of the contents is already revealing, in that there are no fewer than three blues in B-flat, including a sprightly ‘Blue Monk’, the largely chordal theme of ‘Round Lights’ and the slow-medium ‘Bluehawk’ (whose title hints at the club where the pianist was appearing with Charlie Rouse and a local rhythm-section). Then, alongside three of his own best ballads, Monk addresses four songbook items, two of them familiar standards (‘Everything Happens To Me’, at 5’40” the longest track, and Irving Berlin’s ‘Remember’) plus two obscurities – ‘You Took The Words Right Out Of My Heart’ (memorably revisited 36 years later by the Paul Motian trio) and ‘There’s Danger In Your Eyes, Cherie’, a minor slip in the latter occasioning the only retake. The bonus material is both earlier and later, including four slightly throwaway solos from the 1961 quartet’s European tour, also originally issued on Riverside. The early set is less easily found elsewhere, being Monk’s trio appearance at the 1958 Newport festival, with the bass solo that was cut out for Jazz On A Summer’s Day being restored and with the boat-race comments safely removed. All of this well-recorded programme illustrates the pianist’s thoughtful approach and, even when not always premeditated, his still radical voicings remain idiosyncratic and inimitable. For all his eventually wide and beneficial influence, there was only one Monk. Brian Priestley

 

 

Monk AloneMonk Alone

Columbia/Legacy | ★★★★

A double-CD collecting all Thelonious Monk’s solo-piano work for Columbia between 1962 and 1968, this thoroughly delightful compilation contains not only the whole of one of the great pianist’s bestloved albums, Solo Monk, but also 14 previously unreleased tracks, prompting Orrin Keepnews to insist in his characteristically pithy notes that this is not primarily a reissue album. Monk concentrates mainly on standards, played in his familiar stride-based style, liberally embellished with the clanging dissonance and startling use of space and dynamic and textural variety that set him apart from his contemporaries. Both the predictable standard choices (“Body and Soul”, “These Foolish Things”) and the less well-known (“Just a Gigolo”, “I Love You Sweetheart of All My Dreams”) - not to mention such self-penned classics as “Round Midnight” and “Ask Me Now” receive typically quirky, intensely thoughtful treatments, and the whole might be intended as an illustration of just what Monk meant by his apparently oxymoronic title “Ugly Beauty”. Indispensable. CP

 

 

Monks DreamMonk’s Dream

Columbia | ★★★★

Monk (p); Charlie Rouse (ts); John Ore (b); Frankie Dunlop (d). Rec. 1862

Monk

Columbia | ★★★★

Monk (p); Charlie Rouse (ts); Larry 6ales (b); Ben Riley (d). Rec. 1964

When the Monk quartet is playing well it usually brings a smile to the listener’s face. As a rough-&-ready yardstick to judge his albums by, it’s not a bad place to start, especially with his Columbia output, generally critically regarded as something of a curate’s egg when compared to his ground-breaking earlier recordings. Perhaps it all depended on Monk’s mood. Certainly for his first Columbia date, Monk's Dream, recorded in late 1962, he was sounding pretty pleased with life, as the ebullient rhythms and jaunty theme statements testify. In this he is aided by the idiosyncratic and highly enjoyable approach of drummer Frankie Dunlop, a man who seemed to have an entirely sympathetic lope to his beat when it came to matching Monk’s rhythmic progress through a performance. On top of that, Rouse sounds more engaged than on many an occasion later on although he still elects to play solos which select material from a very small motivic pool. But one of the nicest things about the date is the superb recording quality delivered by the Columbia engineers. This in itself is a first for Monk, whose experiences at the hands of Blue Note, Prestige and Riverside were more often than not decidedly well below the hi-fi category. That said, Monk brings no new material to Monk’s Dream, preferring re-workings of originals and revisits to favourite old standards. But it brings a smile to the face, so who’s to worry?

Monk, a studio album from 1964 (all but one track from late in the year), has the rhythm section of his last great group in place and is another very happy date. Recording quality is again superb, with Rouse in particular benefiting from a warm and close microphone sound. The repertoire choice on this date is even more conservative than on any of his earlier Columbia dates, with no less than four standards being served up unvarnished, and a children’s song, That Old Man’, being given the Monk treatment and passed off as an original. Of the other two Monk songs, ‘Pannonica’ is a touching re-make, while ‘Teo’ is actually new and is one of the most spirited efforts on the date. Ben Riley, replacing Dunlop on drums, is a more conventional player but swings like mad: you can imagine Thelonious dancing around the studio in response during his frequent absences from the keyboard on this date. Another happy face record: we don’t have to make innovative masterpieces every time we come to the studio, do we? After all, Monk’s art didn’t exactly evolve much after 1949: he just got various great musicians to record with him as time went by as recording budgets expanded.

 

Ella Fitzgerald: essential recordings

Ella Fitzgerald, whose centenary is being widely celebrated this year, left a huge legacy of classic recordings. Here's just a small sample of some of the finest currently available, complete with full reviews of each

 

Ella FitzgeraldElla Fitzgerald Sings The George and Ira Gershwin Song Book

Essential Jazz Classics EJC55689 | ★★★★★

Ella Fitzgerald (v), with various personnel including Ellis Larkins (p) and Nelson Riddle (cond, arr), plus orchestra. Rec. various dates

As far as vocal jazz goes, Ella Fitzgerald’s series of songbook albums recorded for Norman Granz’s Verve label in the 1950s represent something of a high-watermark. Featuring 59 songs recorded over an eight-month period, reissued here as a 3CD set, the Gershwin songbook was to be the largest single recording project that Fitzgerald worked on. It finds the vocalist at the height of her considerable powers, whether scatting on a scintillating ‘I Got Rhythm’ (the one occasion the singer gets to scat during the entire songbook), effortlessly navigating the waltz-time ‘By Strauss’, or melting the heart with ballads such as ‘But Not For Me’. Coupled with Nelson Riddle’s brilliant charts, it’s little wonder that the collection led Ira Gershwin to say that he’d “never known how good our songs were until I heard Ella sing them”. In addition to the original 59 songs included on the 5LP set, we also get to hear the singer’s first attempt at recording a Gershwin songbook, namely the 1950 10-inch Decca LP Ella Sings Gershwin featuring eight sparkling duets with pianist Ellis Larkins. An additional Gershwin duet (‘Nice Work If You Can Get It’), recorded by Fitzgerald and Larkins in 1954, rounds off this unmissable, landmark set. Peter Quinn

 

 

Ella Fitzgerald Voice of JazzThe Voice of Jazz

Verve Records (10-CD Box) | ★★★★★

Ella Fitzgerald (v); plus various personnel. Rec. 1935-1989

Featuring over 12 hours of music, this 10CD retrospective from Verve Records presents some of the finest jazz singing ever recorded. Tracing an entire lifetime’s devotion to the art of the song, we hear everything from the eighteen-year-old Ella’s first studio recordings made with Chick Webb and his Orchestra in June 1935, ‘I’ll Chase The Blues Away’ and ‘Love and Kisses’ – the singer having landed the job just three months previously – right up to the title track of her final studio album, the appositely titled All That Jazz recorded in 1989. With over 200 newly remastered studio (CDs 1-8) and live tracks (CDs 9-10), the beautifully packaged box set includes a 96-page hardback book with an extensive essay on the singer’s career, illustrations, Ella Fitzgerald album covers and photos, as well as complete track information and credits. From swing to bebop, and from calypsos to bossa nova, Ella could do it all – brilliantly. This is an absolute treasure trove. Peter Quinn

 

 

Ella Fitzgerald Cole Porter Song BookElla Fitzgerald Sings The Cole Porter Songbook

Verve | ★★★★★

Fitzgerald (v) and the Buddy Bregman Orchestra. Rec. 1956

Norman Granz had long cherished the ambition to have Ella recording for his label but had to wait until 1956 to make the signing. His first project for her was to record as many Cole Porter songs as they could lay their hands on in large ensemble style and release them (initially as volumes one and two) on an unsuspecting but quickly enraptured public. The idea caught on and Ella kept doing composer songbooks well into the 1960s. Nobody did it better, even though it could be said that Sinatra’s studious avoidance of such anthologies produced the greater individual legacy. Keith Shadwick

 

 

Ella and LouisElla and Louis: The Complete Norman Granz Sessions

One | ★★★★ Recommended

Louis Armstrong (t, v), Ella Fitzgerald (v), Trummy Young (tb), Ed Hall (cl), Oscar Peterson, Billy Kyle (p), Herb Ellis (g), Ray Brown, Dale Jones (b), Buddy Rich, Louie Bellson and Barrett Deems (d), plus Russell Garcia Orchestra. Rec 1956-57

This 3CD set brings together the two albums that Ella and Louis made with the Oscar Peterson Quartet (with either Buddy Rich or Louie Bellson added to the Ellis/Brown edition of the trio), plus the version of music from Gershwin’s Porgy and Bess that they made with Russell Garcia. The two Peterson albums were most recently out again from Essential Jazz Classics, and it’s only a couple of years since Verve reissued Porgy in a budget edition. However, this set brings the whole lot together, and adds a pair of tracks from a Hollywood Bowl All Stars concert where Ella and Satch teamed up the day before making the original Ella and Louis sessions. One might wonder why One records didn’t go the whole hog and add the earlier collaborations that the two principals had done for Decca in 1946 with Bob Haggart, as there’s some spare running time left on the third and final disc. Nonetheless, this is a treat, and it is good to have all of the studio material done for Granz under one roof. If you don’t have this, it’s more or less an essential purchase, and one of the most joyous examples of music-making ever done by either star. The informal soundcheck of ‘Stompin’ at the Savoy’, the coyness of Ella’s ‘I Won’t Dance’ and the at-the-mike romance of ‘Don’t Be That Way’ are all great moments, to which must be added the sheer dazzling, ethereal beauty of ‘Autumn in New York’, which is one of the finest tracks ever recorded. There might be better versions of some individual tracks done by other singers, but as a body of work, this is pretty much unsurpassed. Alyn Shipton

 

 

Ella Fitzgerald Live in ParisLive in Paris 1957-62

Fremeaux | ★★★★

An aural snapshot album of Ella – six concerts done at the height of her latterday powers, excellently recorded at the Olympia, giving fascinating insight into how her act and slight variations in backing band developed.

 

 

 

 

Ella Fitzgerald BBCBest of the BBC Vaults

Voyage Digital Media | ★★★★

Ella Fitzgerald (v), plus various personnel including Tommy Flanagan (p). Rec. 1965-1977

The BBC archivists have been busy, unearthing some priceless Ella Fitzgerald performances for what is the first in a series of CD/DVD releases entitled Best Of The BBC Vaults. The twofer, remastered using the very latest audio restoration techniques, includes complete sets from Show of the Week: Ella Fitzgerald Swings (1965), Ella Fitzgerald Sings (1965), Omnibus Presents Ella Fitzgerald at Ronnie Scott’s (1974), plus a 1977 edition of Jazz From Montreux. The DVD clocks in at over two hours, with the accompanying CD offering edited highlights from all four shows. The two 1965 sets – the first with the Tommy Flanagan trio, the second a shared bill with the Johnnie Spence Orchestra plus the trio – are outstanding, from incendiary readings of ‘Goody Goody’ and ‘Something’s Gotta Give’ to a luxuriantly arranged ‘Body And Soul’, the latter featuring the briefest of solos from Tubby Hayes (mystifyingly not included on the Best Of CD). It will be fascinating to see what else the archivists have uncovered. Peter Quinn

 

Ella Fitzgerald Like Someone in LoveLike Someone In Love

Essential Jazz Classics EJC55465 | ★★★★

Ella Fitzgerald (v); plus various personnel including Stan Getz (ts). Rec. 1956-1957

Featuring a studio orchestra arranged and conducted by Frank DeVol, Like Someone In Love (1957) dates from an especially fertile period of Fitzgerald’s career, recorded at the same time as her Ellington Songbook. The album’s personnel remains a mystery (the original liner notes are all of five lines long), but Stan Getz is featured as soloist on the languid album opener ‘There’s A Lull In My Life’, plus ‘What Will I Tell My Heart?, ‘Midnight Sun’, ‘You’re Blasé’ and ‘What’s New? with music by Jimmy Van Heusen and words by Johnny Burke, the title track has never sounded lovelier, Fitzgerald caressing the opening line (‘Lately I find myself out gazing at stars, Hearing guitars like someone in love’) with infinite tenderness. A Getz quartet version of the title track, recorded the previous year, makes a fine bonus track. Peter Quinn

 

 

Ella in HollywoodElla in Hollywood

Verve | ★★★★

Ella Fitzgerald (v), Lou Levy (p), Herb Ellis (g), Wilfred Middlebrooks (b), Gus Johnson (d) and orchestra. Rec. 1961

Previously only available on CD as a Japanese import, this reissue has been in the pipeline for such a long time that fans of the singer had probably begun to fear it would never see the light of day. Recorded in the same year as Ella Fitzgerald Sings the Harold Arlen Songbook, Clap Hands, Here Comes Charlie! and Ella Returns to Berlin, Ella in Hollywood is one of the finest live dates in the singer’s discography. Ella is on imperious form in the relaxed, intimate atmosphere of The Crescendo nightclub, coupled with a highly responsive band and great material including her early hit ‘Mr. Paganini’. At whichever end of the tempo spectrum, from the supercharged opener ‘This Could Be The Start Of Something Big’ to the sumptuous ballad ‘Baby, Won’t You Please Come Home’, Ella delivers each song with a bell-like clarity and absolute control. To hear some of the greatest examples of jazz singing, listen to the beautifully controlled upwards glissando on the opening ‘you’ of ‘You’re Driving Me Crazy’, the remarkably long-lined phrasing of ‘It Might As Well Be Spring’, and the jawdropping, divinely inspired scat in the 10-minute tour de force of ‘Take the “A” Train’. Peter Quinn

 

Twenty years of Jazzwise's Albums of the Year

Jazzwise Albums of the Year

Every year our writers vote for the recording that they think most deserves the accolade 'Album of the Year'. And here they are in all their glory - from 1997 to today. If you're looking for a great new jazz album to add to your collection - this is the perfect place to start...

Coltrane1997

John Coltrane 

The Complete 1961 Village Vanguard Recordings

Impulse!

What comes across to an overwhelming degree is what a powerhouse group this was, working its determined way through its new-minted repertoire. Coltrane’s own tenor style was balanced nicely between the swashbuckling approach of the later Atlantic studio dates and the more intense, ferocious storms of notes and contrastingly tender ballad essays of the years ahead. He drives the rhythm hard, pacing Elvin Jones every inch of the way and essaying singular odysseys into the new improvisatory trails he is discovering for himself. Dolphy, by contrast, seems often to be watching from a distance, approaching the band from oblique, almost playful angles. He rarely solos for any length of time but seems to scatter a whole range of ideas and suggestions to Coltrane, who responds with renewed vigour in his pursuit of his own personal demons and goals. None of this would have been possible without the staggering input of Jones and the two bassists, Garrison and Workman (Workman eventually left the band, exhausted by the physical demands of playing so long and so hard). Tyner is the least central figure here, his role yet to develop from a purely supportive one, often dropping out entirely when Coltrane or Dolphy are at their most vocalised and charged.

Yet the band is a wholly focused one, whatever variations in personnel Coltrane wrought from night to night, tune to tune, version to version. Of all the music made available here, only the raggedly executed "Brasilia” could never have been seriously considered for initial release, such is the consistency of the band’s performances.

One final point: in an edition which is supposed to be definitive in every respect, I’m surprised to find that author/Coltrane analyst David Wild in his tracing of the history of the tune "Impressions”, while noting the "So What” parallel, makes no mention of the source for the Coltrane melody itself - Debussy’s "L’isle Joyeuse”. Perhaps that’s why the tune was initially called "Excerpt” by Coltrane, for that’s precisely what it was. The later title hardly attempts to obscure the issue, either, considering Debussy’s usual musical pigeon-hole. Be that as it may, live jazz recordings just don’t come any better or more engrossing than this. Keith Shadwick

 

Brahem1998

Anouar Brahem 

Thimar

ECM

Tunisian classical oud player Anouar Brahem was introduced to Dave Holland’s playing through Angel Song, and the Wolverhampton-born bassist performs a function here - his lithe propulsiveness is the rhythmic heart of the band - almost identical to the one on the earlier ECM recording. Woven around his rock-steady centre are Brahem’s mellow oud improvisations and John Surman’s plaintive skirling (at times almost miraculously Middle Eastern-sounding) on soprano, plus his deliciously woody bass clarinet. Overall, a typically meditative, tranquil and beautiful ECM album with enough improvisational power to please jazz fans, and an album that also continues a recent run of fascinating collisions between jazz and the music of the Maghreb. Chris Parker 

 

Douglas1999

Dave Douglas 

Songs for Wandering Souls

Winter and Winter

Trumpeter Dave Douglas is one of the most consistently intriguing musicians working in contemporary jazz, and has an invaluable capacity for turning up something strikingly different with almost every project.

 

 

EST2000

EST 

Good Morning Susie Soho

ACT

Fantastic, they’re back! EST - pianist Esbjörn Svensson together with Dan Berglund on bass and Magnus Ostrom on drums, the most inventive piano trio to arrive on the scene in years - deliver the follow up to last year’s outstanding From Gagarin's Point Of View. EST are redefining the art of the piano trio. Impossible, I hear you cry; well, listening to their new album makes me realise that the impossible has been achieved. This is an awesome work of immense power, beauty and futuristic musical vision. This is an unbelievably essential album - from the beautifully reflective opener ‘Somewhere Else Before’ to the mind-blowing nine-plus minutes epic ‘The Wraith’ you know you are listening to important music (and how often can you say that these days?). The Esbjörn Svensson Trio was formed in 1993, a constant lineup for this forward-thinking trio has aided the development and success they strive for and so richly deserve. With this latest instalment of their musical vision, EST have definitely established themselves as the forward thinking contemporary piano trio. Mike Chadwick

 

Texier2001

Henri Texier 

Remparts D’Argile

Label Bleu

This album is drawn from music composed and improvised for Jean-Luis Bertuccelli’s film of the same name. The film was originally released in 1970 and focuses on the lives and struggles of the people of the Algerian-Tunisian Sahara. In 1999, Bertuccelli decided to incorporate a live performance of Texier’s trio and weave this into and around the film’s minimal soundtrack. My guess is that the combined impact of the visual image with this music must be very powerful indeed. However, without even seeing the film , it is still clear that this record derives from a truly inspirational source. To his credit, Texier has avoided the obvious and cliched choices that could have damned this project. He uses themes and forms that reflect the music of North Africa, but without trying to invade that culture or pillage its music styles. Compositions aim to suggest and compliment the visual image not appropriate it through some fake, stylistic contrivances. So, at various times, the music can be allowed to swing in those ways we associate with African-American music or explode in an Aylerish outburst of rage or instead hint at more evidently North African modes. There’s a good example of this in the way Tony Rabeson’s drums are used in the music. They are certainly central to the sound and placed far up in the mix. Drums are important in the music of the region but there is intention to imitate. Rabeson’s approach is quite different. Often he suggests something that is not immediately influenced by either jazz or Arabic music but which is nevertheless touched by both. In a similar way, altoist/clarinettist Sebastien Texier will weave serpentine, snake-charmer lines over a more obviously jazz-based performance from the rhythm section. Post-modern perhaps but far more than bricolage.

Texier’s playing is astonishing. It must help that he is so clear about Bertuccelli’s vision for this project but he actually has such a profound sense of purpose here that it is positively transcendental. He thunders, drums and pounds out the pulse behind this music like a man with a mission. On this form, he must be quite inspirational to play alongside. By all accounts, Bertuccelli produced a film that reflected the sadness and joy of its subjects. Their suffering is not to be patronised or treated to the voyeurism of some kind of cultural tourism. We should only be left with the impression of their dignity and integrity. I suspect this is what Texier has sought to achieve here and he may just have surpassed his best hopes for the project. Duncan Heining

 

Shorter2002

Wayne Shorter 

Footprints Live

Verve

An intriguing prospect on paper. The legendary 67 year old saxophonist surrounded by a young, stellar acoustic band (drummer Brian Blade, bassist John Patitucci, pianist Danilo Perez) revisiting the classic mid-60s material that assured Wayne Shorter a place in jazz history. The cynics would say that it's a sign of his creative stasis; the return to an acoustic format is a soft option for an artist whose recent electric albums never quite hit home. Or that his prolific writing has finally dried up. Wrong on both counts. Footprints Live, has anything but comfort zones or complacencies; it is a bold, impassioned on-the-edge work that shows that Shorter’s original recorded versions of ‘Footprints’, ‘Juju’ and 'Go' were far from closed chapters and that if anything the spirit more than the structural bones of these pieces has endured; the tunes themselves have become clues to new puzzles, points of departure for new explorations. As engineer Rob Griffin pointed out, this new band is almost like "an advanced string quartet” and the muscular intricacy of the music requires absolute concentration from the listener. The centre of gravity is constantly changing and just when the band appear to be settling into a recognisable framework, they puckishly shift metre or harmonic sphere, stretching to the avant-garde or coming back in to more accessible post-bop. Perez's impassioned latin phrases and Brian Blade’s inventive percussive fills stand out but it's Shorter’s tender and turbulent playing that holds it all together. There is nothing remotely nostalgic about this record; it is more a testimony to Wayne Shorter's ability to blur perceptions of the known and unknown, past and present, old and young. Surely that is a mark of greatness. Kevin Le Gendre 

 

Baptiste2003

Denys Baptiste 

Let Freedom Ring!

Dune

It was a serene afternoon turning into evening. Dark times were ahead the day Martin Luther King was assassinated. Since then he has been hailed as a universal inspiration for anyone in the world who believes in civil rights and peace and justice for all. Saxophonist Denys Baptiste has worked out what the man means in this suite originally commissioned by the Cheltenham International Jazz Festival and the Jerwood Foundation.

He is joined by a 12-piece group that allows the ebb and flow of jazz to coalesce with the foaming swell of Ben Okri's voice reading from his epic poem ‘Mental Fight'. Highlights? Well, Okri’s calm yet compelling voice speaks volumes; Robin Banerjee's chattering guitar is a vital presence but above all the community at work is what makes the wounds that cut so deep for so many, heal. Stephen Graham

 

Iyer2004

Vijay Iyer/Mike Ladd 

In What Language?

Pi

’The airport is not a neutral place.’ This is the clef de voute of the short, incisive and thought-provoking sleeve notes that accompany this fascinating album. Indeed anyone who’s been the object of customs officers’ ire for possessing sedi­tious skin tone, dangerous hair or a beard of mass destruction, will relate. Airports are places where power is exerted and Iranian film maker Jafar Panahi, travelling from a festival in Hong Kong, found him­self on the wrong side of the gate when he was detained by INS officials at JFK. He was shackled to a bench for several hours and then sent back to Hong Kong. This was before 9/11. In What Language is Iyer and Ladd's musical response to this infamous incident; it is a treatise on the airport as a place of 'conflict and quarantine, reception, departure and detention.' Iyer is one of the most interesting young American improvisers that you probably haven't heard of, a gifted pianist who's played with Steve Coleman and Greg Tate’s Burnt Sugar project. Mike Ladd is the maverick MC and spoken wordsmith who you should have heard of. Flagship artist of the important alt-hop Ozone label, he is idiosyncratic, bombastic, complex, surreal and cerebral - everything that mainstream hip-hop isn’t.

Iyer and Ladd’s collaboration slides almost directly into the lineage of Thirsty Ear's important bridge building between the worlds of the avant-garde and electronica. It’s sonically exciting, idiomatically blurring. Most of all In What Language is a political lour de force; a vivid, cogent, at times arresting 17 piece song cycle that becomes a powerful evocation of the immigrant experience at zero hour, where predatory paranoia poisons race relations to the core. Iyer and Ladd, who wrote all the lyrics even though he didn't voice the entirety (Ajay Naidu brilliantly plays a range of immigrant characters), come across as two hemispheres of the same brain. The pianist has written in an agitated and agitating fashion, using semi-classical motifs and spooky spirals of chords as the flickering lights that illuminate the runway of Ladd’s texts. At times Iyer’s compositions float as statically and oppressively as those customs queues that never move, at times they shuttle into intense, intrepid propulsion, like the blue touch paper arguments that break out over ‘ID’. In each piece there is light, shade, ebb and flow in the music that sketches out drum & M-base or haunted Asian-inflected laments where Iyer’s harmonic subtleties come to the fore. Imagine this inconjunction with penetrating Ladd lines such as ‘We are the vegetation that will subdue the lobby in the airport’ and you have a profound, potent work whose range of characters and scenarios makes a stage adaptation a logical next step. I for one hope that this important, moving meditation on the destructive static of discrimination takes off in theatres around the world for this is an artistically accomplished protest piece from two brave, uncompromising players. With excellent production from Medeski, Martin & Wood/Wu Tang’s main man Scotty Hard and fine input from up and coming guitar slinger Liberty Ellman and Steve Coleman’s fly young trumpeter Ambrose Akinmusire, the electricity crackles without respite. The airport is not a neutral place. And this is not a neutral album. Kevin Le Gendre

 

Ladyland2005

Acoustic Ladyland 

Last Chance Disco

Babel 

While last year's Camouflage documented their early re-imaginings of Jimi Hendrix, Last Chance Disco shows a working band that has blossomed into an angry teenager. On this, their second album, Acoustic Ladyland ditch Hendrix to storm through 11 beautifully outrageous, X-rated jazz-rock creations. How refreshing their lack of respect for convention and tradition is and how unusual it is to hear a jazz group, especially a British one, that sounds so utterly original.

While most of its members are in their late twenties or early thirties, Acoustic Ladyland have the energy of hormonal high school rockers on this album. A tenor sax jazz quartet in appearance only, equally, if not more, a product of The Ramones, The Sex Pistols, The Yeah, Yeah, Yeahs and Franz Ferdinand than any jazz tradition.

Musically, Last Chance Disco veers from sweet to sour: the hardcore, new-wave jamming of 'High Heel Blues' and the whirlwind, ska-drenched 'Deck Chair’, that morphs into free form grindcore rock by the end, versus the tender 'Nico’, a tribute to The Velvet Underground. Wareham screeches as if he’s Albert Ayler reborn, mimicking vocal lines and guitar riffs rather than sax solos. Underneath it all is the relentless, quick-witted rock drumming of Sebastian Rochford (outrageous on ’Of You’); the rip-roaring keys of Tom Cawley and Tom Herbert’s masterful electric basslines.

If rock critics fail to pick up on Last Chance Disco, then they’re missing out. Sonically adventurous and damn loud, this is music to give Wynton a heart attack. But the album isn’t aimed at jazz audiences anyway. As Wareham defiantly sings on the album's only vocal number (‘Perfect Bitch’): "now I'm leaving you/thank you all the way/l’ll tear up all the rules/not going to play.” He could be saying “adios" to the jazz scene - but ironically, he has also created one of its most irresistible albums in years. Tom Barlow

 

Marsalis2006

Branford Marsalis 

Braggtown

Marsalis Music

From the opening track ‘Jack Baker’ which pins your ears back with a level of intensity that is magnificently sustained from the first bar to the last, it is clear that Marsalis has made the transition from eternal wunderkind to artistic maturity with playing here that demonstrates the gravitas and profundity few musicians of his generation or the current generation in any style of jazz possess. Unmistakably in the tradition of the tenor giants of jazz - Coltrane, Rollins, Johnny Griffin at their peak - Marsalis remains deliciously apart from his legion of contemporaries through the sheer force of his musical personality. He can be powerful and compelling (‘Black Elk Speaks’, ‘Blackzilla’), hauntingly beautiful (‘Hope’, ‘Fate’and '0, Solitude’) and mysterious (‘Sir Roderick Aloof'). This broad expressive range is matched by a desire to be heard, after all he is surrounded by like minded musicians who have coalesced into one of the finest ensembles in jazz. Stuart Nicholson 

 

Empirical2007

Empirical 

Empirical

Destin-e

Empirical could turn out to be one of the most important bands in UK jazz history. Their debut album is outstanding. It's not just another jazz quintet, but a proper band, encompassing jazz’s past, present and future. You can feel the strong influence of Ornette throughout the entire project, but the freedom is structured. There’s a constant African undercurrent, especially on ‘The Deep' and the Ali Farka Toure composition, ‘Tulumba’. There’s even a section of Forbes’ haunting ‘Kite’, which wouldn't sound out of place on an ECM record. Phelps’ 'Clapton Willow’, on the other hand, has an almost Ellingtonian dignity. Facey’s passionate playing, with occasional hints of both Colemans and (on ‘Blessings') even Cannonball, still has its own sound. Phelps, too, has a sound of his own. It’s peppery in places, very variedly rhythmic with glimpses of Booker Little, perhaps and Don Cherry. Charles and Forbes have their own things going and adapt so quickly to whatever direction the soloists and/or arranged passages take, often where you least expect them. One of the many highlights is the lengthy, multimood ‘A Tyrant’s Tale’ by Phelps, with tender then Cherry-like trumpet over sombre chords from Downes, whose playing is so fresh on every track. British Album of the Year!

 

Holland2008

Dave Holland Sextet 

Pass it on

Dare2

Well, this has to be my CD of the year. It is surely one of Dave Holland’s best albums in a long and distinguished career as a musician and as a composer. The best are always immediately recognisable – Ellington, Mingus, Brubeck, Ornette, Coltrane.

And Dave Holland is definitely another for that pantheon. Everything combines perfectly here, there’s nothing wasted or out of place. Performances, arrangements and compositions all make perfect sense. I’ve never been a fan of Mulgrew Miller but in this setting he’s a revelation. His introduction to ‘Equality’ is simply gorgeous. Eric Harland on drums is already one of the greats and the three horn frontline combine beautifully, especially in that interlocking, New Orleans derived counterpoint of which Holland is so fond. Listen closely and there are so many delightful touches here – like the way the trombone doubles the piano or bass line or the way woodwind or trumpet background figures comment upon or tell a different tale from the main theme. ‘Rivers Run’ – the most abstract piece here – heads off into dark and uncharted waters, while the title track closes the record in fine, funky style. This is the most honest record, emotionally and artistically, you will hear in a long time. It’s all in the groove. Duncan Heining

 

Jarrett2009

Keith Jarrett 

Testament Paris / London

ECM

Keith Jarrett is one of a handful of artists in jazz who gives evidence of almost continuous artistic growth, refining and improving not only his approach to the piano in terms of touch but to his melodic and harmonic conception as well. Throughout he has striven to exile cliché and gratuitous gesture so that his solo discography from Facing You in 1972 to this, quite possibly the finest representation of his solo art to date, is one of a style, conception and approach continually evolving. For example, he is critical of his touch on Köln Concert, well aware that through his exacting process of self examination and self improvement it is now something that is admired and even envied by the piano playing fraternity in jazz.

What Radiance (2002) and The Carnegie Hall Concert (2006) made plain was that he was past the long, uninterrupted solo improvisation seeking instead spontaneously conceived episodes that were sufficient in themselves, shorter blocks of material that said everything Jarrett wished to say in the moment. If this rigorous self-editing resulted in episodes of five or 15 minutes, so be it. With Testament – a three CD set of his concerts at Salle Pleyel in Paris and the Royal Festival Hall in London at the end of last year – the creation of these episodes has become more refined, and also more expansive with Jarrett inclined to draw on a wide range of musical inspiration rather than the more focused creation of a single mood. This approach is best illustrated by the London concert, where over 12 musical episodes Jarrett moves from an introspective, requiem-like opening to moods that rock with such exuberance it delighted his audience. It is a fascinating document of what those who were present on 1 December last year say was an occasion charged with electricity, with Jarrett delivering at the very top of his form. Stuart Nicholson  

 

2010Phronesis Alive

Phronesis 

Alive

Edition

To a larger extent than many of their contemporaries, Danish-born double bassist Jasper Høiby's Phronesis make music not only for the mind and heart but also for the body. This is their third album to date but the first for Cardiff-based label Edition who have recorded the piano trio in their natural habitat: in front of a live audience.

It's a selection of material culled from two consecutive nights at the Forge in Camden Town. Live recordings are usually unmanageable but this one has been put together with a lot of TLC, meaning attention to detail in every area. It has paid healthy dividends, with a live sonic that reflects the band's ability to join together intimacy and energy, the tender and animalistic. It's all in spite of regular member, the Copenhagen-based swedish drummer Anton Eger, having to be replaced in a lastminute.com-type line-up change. Høiby couldn't have got a better replacement if they'd had all year to find one. New York-based drummer Mark Guiliana is a real scoop. Best known for his tenure with bassist Avishai Cohen, who's the main role model for Høiby's virile, percussive bass style, Guiliana also works with excellent New York pianist Jason Lindner and vocalist Gretchen Parlato. Here, the drummer's explosive polyrhythmic palette is always tempered by a great pair of ears. There have been comparisons with EST, and although Phronesis shares with them a pulsating sense of groove there is less of an emphasis on any contemplative Nordic roots as such. Rather Høiby's wonderfully sensuous, memorable Mediterranean and eastern folk-flavoured themes tend to resonate more with Avishai Cohen's. At the same time there's a classic piano trio jazz heritage that's mainly down to the ever-improving pianist Ivo Neame. Though he sometimes recalls Chick Corea's Spanish-tinged percussive fluidity, Jarret's rhapsodising, McCoy Tyner's trancey Trane period and even Mehldau's pastoral folk-pop piano in places, Neame has his own way of doing things. Alive is about as exciting as it can get without actually seeing this band live and in the flesh. Selwyn Harris

 

Gregory Porter Water2011

Gregory Porter 

Water

Motéma

New African-American male jazz vocalists are thin on the ground to say the least, so the arrival of New York based Californian Porter is definitely something worth raising a hallelujah for. Gospel and soul are indeed also part of the deep well of black music from which he draws and there is as much Donny Hathaway as Lou Rawls or Bill Henderson in both the impassioned fire and technical finesse of Porter’s performance. While he has the pipes to really make a song, especially those of the soul jazz or swing persuasion, come to life, Porter is also capable of tremendous subtlety elsewhere, no more so than a crystalline reading of ‘Skylark’, in which he holds languorous, long tones to perfectly capture the wistful nature of the piece. Powerful social commentary such as ‘1960 What?’ lend further substance to the programme, but intelligent lyrics aside, it is the quite startling voice and well marshalled charisma of Gregory Porter that mark him out as a substantial addition to the canon of jazz singing. Kevin Le Gendre

 

2012Courtney Pine House Of Legends

Courtney Pine 

House Of Legends

Destin-E

Unquestionably one of the most joyous albums Pine has ever made, this is music to be listened to on several levels. On the surface, it’s just brilliantly effective dance music, and it is to be hoped that when the band tours in the spring, they’ll clear the chairs and leave space for everyone to take to the floor. But underneath the carefree surface is both a living and a thoughtful exploration of the Caribbean heritage, with nods to South Africa, and towards London.

One track above all typifies the record, and that is ‘Liamuiga: Cook Up’. The title is both the Kalinago Carib Indian word for ‘fertile land’ and an indication of the heady mixture of sources (or musical sauces) that have gone into the piece. The title was given to the tune as the result of a competition organised for listeners to Winn FM 96.9 on St Kitts and Nevis. The most effective element of the record is the accomplished rhythm playing that absorbs a series of different rhythms and pulses from the islands, but never loses touch with a jazz sensibility. This gives Courtney the ideal backdrop for his personal exploration of the possibilities of the soprano saxophone, wistful and melodic on the Zouk Love pieces and aggressively involved on ‘The Tale of Stephen Lawrence’. Additionally, a real delight for fans of ska or soca is the way that guests such as Rico Rodriguez or Bammi Rose have been drawn into the album’s heady mix. Rico’s laidback behind-the-beat phrasing adds swagger and style to ‘Kingstonian Swing’ while Rose’s gently passionate flute brings sophistication and intricacy to ‘Song of the Maroons’. Plenty of review records command fine words and then get consigned to the shelves never to be played again. I can guarantee this one will be providing the backdrop to energetic extrovert dancing for years to come. Alyn Shipton

 

Wayne Shorter Quartet Without A Net2013

Wayne Shorter Quartet 

Without A Net

Blue Note

It was 44 years ago that Wayne Shorter made his debut on the Blue Note label, as a precocious 26-year-old tenor saxophonist in Art Blakey’s Jazz Messengers in 1959. Now in his 80th year, he has re-signed with the label that was scene of some of his great triumphs of the 1960s, when label founder Alfred Lion invited him to record as a leader in his own right in 1964 that resulted in classics such as Night Dreamer, Juju, Speak No Evil, Adam’s Apple and Super Nova. It’s been a long journey since then, worldwide acclaim as a member of the Miles Davis Quintet and with Weather Report, and in more recent times with his own quartet, which made its debut on record in 2002. But Without a Net is something special, comprising eight tracks recorded during the quartet’s 2011 European tour and the ninth track, the 23-minute ‘Pegasus’, recorded at the Walt Disney Concert Hall in Los Angeles with the Imani Winds. The result is Blue Note’s finest recording since its reincarnation in the 1980s under EMI and quite possibly the finest album of Shorter’s career. The starting point of this group is the abstracted improvisational forms explored by Miles Davis in the 1960s that culminated in one of the great classics of recorded jazz, Live at the Plugged Nickel from 1965, its precepts carried forward through subsequent Miles groups, such as the lost sessions of 1969, through into his abstract jams of Bitches Brew and beyond. This is the key that unlocks the door to this remarkable album, where Shorter’s maxim of “rehearsing the unknown,” with everyone responding to the impulses of the moment, results in some inspired music making that represents jazz at its finest, not just in the here and now, but of the past and the future as well. Stuart Nicholson

 

2014Michael Wollny Trio Weltentraum

Michael Wollny Trio 

Weltentraum

ACT

With regular bassist Eva Kruse taking a sabbatical following the birth of her second child, the critically acclaimed piano trio [em] is reconfigured with addition of the American bassist Tim Lefebvre and emerges as the Michael Wollny Trio. Weltentraum – rough translation, ‘we search the dreamworlds’ – is an album of standards, but not your usual standards, these are pieces by the likes of Alban Berg, Gustav Mahler, Paul Hindemith, Edgard Varese, Wolfgang Rihm, Friedrich Nietzsche and Guillaume de Mauchaut which are morphed into intense, personal statements by Wollny that are revealing of his artistic growth, musical curiosity and growing stature as an artist. The themes are linked by Wollny’s initial idea of creating an album of ‘night’ songs – music with a mysterious aura of darkness and intrigue. This ‘dark’ theme enabled songs such as ‘Little Person’ by Jon Brion and Charlie Kaufman from the film Synecdoche, New York and ‘In Heaven’ by Peter Ivers and David Lynch from the film Eraserhead to be included in a remarkable, yet subtle, tour-de-force where less is more and the resources of melodic invention are craftily exploited. The odd-tuneout comes at the end – a version Pink’s ‘God is a DJ’ with a vocal by Theo Bleckmann recorded live at the Philharmonie, Cologne in March 2013. Its message of optimism is a fitting epilogue to an album that already is a serious contender for the Critic’s Picks of 2014. Stuart Nicholson

 

Washington2015

Kamasi Washington 

The Epic

Brainfeeder

The title is not to be taken lightly. In numbers it translates as: 3CDs; 17 songs; 32-piece orchestra; 20-piece choir; 10-piece band. With scale being such a defining feature of this music it is also worth noting that there are 172 minutes to contend with, and it is to Washington’s credit that the output is justified, first and foremost because the artistic ambition matches the sweeping production.

Known for his work with producer Flying Lotus and a member of the Los Angeles aggregation The West Coast Get Down, Washington is a player and composer with a penchant for long-form pieces in which melodic lines are ornate anthems wrapped in finely shaded orchestral threads. Although music industry marketeers will inevitably tag this as ‘spiritual jazz’ the dominant aesthetic thankfully avoids any of the sub-genre’s clichés, such is Washington’s desire to draw together references that are refreshingly disparate. In real terms that means that the all-important choral basis of the music – mostly sleek soprano lines that soar around the themes like a volley of flutes and piccolos – blends Horace Silver and Pharoah Sanders from the 1980s rather than 70s (think the former’s The Continuity Of Spirit and the latter’s Heart Is A Melody), while some of the rhythmic and harmonic content has the authoritative, dark-tolight stance of the great Horace Tapscott’s Pan Afrikan People’s Arkestra. Washington’s own playing, with his dry, stark tone and concise, clenched phrasing is impressive, but the greatest achievement of this work is the newness that springs from a deep historical root.

Moving from hard swing to funk to some of the digital age sensibilities scoped out by Thundercat, this is an album of progressive present day thinking that willfully acknowledges its debt to the past, as befits the ongoing relationship between the two. So if there is a sample of a Malcolm X speech it is relevant to the current political debate: There’s nothing wrong with being a Muslim. There is something very right about the premise and execution of this work. Kevin Le Gendre 

 

Garland2016

Tim Garland 

One

Edition

 A new group and a new beginning for Tim Garland in what is the finest album by a British jazz musician for quite some while. First, a word about Garland’s virtuoso playing on tenor and soprano saxes, which has reached a level of excellence and maturity that is truly world class. On soprano he offers an evenness of tonal density throughout the registers of the instrument; nothing sounds pinched or forced, and while his articulation is precise and accurate, each note rings through with remarkable clarity even in legato passages. Expressing himself in melodic, rather than pattern-based, improvisation, his playing is virtually cliché free, often using ‘compositional’ devices such as the use of the rising line to create a feeling of tension. This feeling is also reinforced by the occasional use of side-slipping.

On ‘Bright New Year’ he plays with such freedom within form it represents a striking example of exemplary contemporary jazz improvisation. Equally, on ‘Colours of Night’ he exhibits a degree of both technique and taste (the two rarely go hand in hand) that few in jazz can equal. On tenor saxophone he retains this melodic lucidity, evenness of tonal density (from bell tones to false-fingered high notes at the extreme of the saxophone’s range) and on ‘The Eternal Greeting’ he gives a virtual master class in manipulating the rising line to potent and dramatic effect.

Garland has developed the story-telling privilege that is the province of the great jazz improvisers – a Garland solo is not a breakneck bunch of notes thrown at listeners for them to try and make sense of, but solos of architectonic construction that have a beginning, a middle and an end and take the listener on an absorbing journey. But even mastery of your chosen instrument at the level Garland has achieved (and which few in jazz can match) is not enough in jazz today. The challenge is to create an effective context to give expression to the improvisers art. Here again Garland scores, with an ensemble that has done away with the traditional piano-bass-drums role of the jazz rhythm section and placed the rhythmic role in the hands of keyboards, Ant Law’s eight-string guitar which covers the bass notes and Asaf Sirkis’ innovative drums/ percussion. This fresh approach – a development of the rhythmic approach adopted by his previous group Lighthouse – is integral to Garland’s compositional ingenuity with pieces written in a way that shows this unusual approach to rhythm to best advantage. Here, Asaf Sirkis emerges as an unsung hero with a performance that is surely world class. Rebello and Law are exemplary too, offering maturity and flair in both ensemble and solo that contribute significantly in making this album special. Stuart Nicholson 

Jazz in the 1960s: the ultimate guide to the greatest albums

The quantity and diversity of great jazz albums recorded in the 1960s means that any list of great albums that claims to be in any way 'definitive' is on very shaky ground. Nonetheless, the albums highlighted below are benchmarks in the history of jazz on record and if you are discovering jazz for the first time then you've just found the perfect place to start. You can also enjoy tracks from each of these albums in our Apple Music playlist 'Jazz in the 1960s' as you read. Reissues of classic albums are reviewed in every issue of Jazzwise, so do check out our latest subscription offers. Let's start with a masterpiece...

Love supremeA Love Supreme

Impulse!

John Coltrane (ts, v), McCoy Tyner (p), Jimmy Garrison (b) and Elvin Jones (d). Rec. 1964

No matter how many times you approach this album it’s always greater than the sum of whatever parts you compile. Yes, it’s perfect, yes, it’s ambitious, yes it crosses over far from the usual jazz conceptions, yes it is couched as a suite of meditations-in-kind that give it a formal design way beyond 99 per cent of jazz albums. Yes, Coltrane plays like a man inspired by something more than the job immediately to hand, as do the other three musicians involved, and yes the themes are unremittingly sober. But that only scratches the surface of this album’s achievement. You can’t lay it at the door of Coltrane’s aspirations, because good intentions often lead to artistic disasters in music as well as every other aesthetic discipline, but it is possible that his own complete commitment to his testimony of spiritual re-birth happily coincided with a day in the studio where he was truly touched to open his soul through the medium of his saxophone, for his playing on this record is almost terrifyingly open, intense and soul-shattering, even when he is simply stating a theme.

This is a very powerful part of the album’s pull, as is the tautness of each selection’s form, and it must also account for the hold it has sustained magically over listeners who otherwise venture rarely into any form of jazz, including the progressive rock fans of the late 60s and onwards. Within jazz itself, the album ensured that the music could no longer be considered a social or cultural also-ran, the spiritual and humanistic concerns that made up its inspiration demanding that it be treated in the same way as the master creations of the art-music of any culture. Nothing could be the same again. It still isn’t. Keith Shadwick

 

Village VanguardSunday At The Village Vanguard

Riverside

Bill Evans (p), Scott LaFaro (b) and Paul Motian (d). Rec. 1961

Sadly terminated by the demise of LaFaro in a car crash only 10 days after the two Village Vanguard albums (this album and Waltz for Debby), this group did more than any other at the start of the 1960s to loosen the bonds of the Peterson/Jamal traditional trio approach, and its effects are still being re-interpreted. Sunday and Waltz are totally live and together they contain all 21 issued takes that were recorded in the afternoon and evening of the group’s last day at the Vanguard. The individual performers play with astonishing freedom, as well as listening intently to each other. Evans is bursting with energy and invention, even in the ballads, while LaFaro’s work is challenging yet melodic, provided you can follow his flights of fancy. It’s hard to choose between the two live albums although Sunday, the first to be issued, includes LaFaro’s originals (‘Gloria’s Step’ with its 5-bar sections and the 5/4 ballad ‘Jade Visions’). Brian Priestley

 

Bitches BrewBitches Brew

Columbia

Miles Davis (t), Wayne Shorter (ss), Bennie Maupin (b cl), Joe Zawinul, Chick Corea (el p), John McLaughlin (g), Dave Holland (b), Harvey Brooks (el b), Lenny White, Jack DeJohnette (d), Don Alias (perc) and Jumma Santos (shaker). Rec. 1969

“Listen to this,” urged renowned jazz writer Ralph J. Gleason in the liner note of the original 1970 release. “How can it ever be the same?” And clearly it wasn’t. From Mati Klarwein’s warped Afro sci-fi artwork and Gleason’s Beat-influenced sleeve babble to the brain-melting, barrier-crunching music inside, Bitches Brew ripped up the rule book and redefined the parameters of jazz for the next three decades. And then some. A colossal, unruly combination of electric jazz impressionism, dense funk rhythms, psychedelic rock flavours and Stockhausen’s dark soundscapes, topped by some of Miles’ most stunning and evocative trumpet work. A jazz-rock volcano that spat controversy with every eruption. Jon Newey

 

Out to LunchOut to Lunch

Blue Note

Eric Dolphy (f, as, b cl), Freddie Hubbard (t), Bobby Hutcherson (vb), Richard Davis (b) and Tony Williams (d). Rec. 1964

This famous 1964 set made if anything more impact than Dolphy’s debut album. He’d found a stimulating environment and the active involvement of a youthful cast - Tony Williams now gone, Freddie Hubbard out of action, Richard Davis out of jazz and only Bobby Hutcherson out there, the session is a historical artefact that’s belied by the freshness of its music. Items like “Gazzelloni” and the stunning “Hat and Beard” have achieved immortality, but also held out a huge promise for the future. Four months and four days later, Dolphy was dead. Brian Priestley

 

Spiritual UnitySpiritual Unity

ESP-Disk

Albert Ayler (ts), Gary Peacock (b) and Sunny Murray (d). Rec. 1964

Spiritual Unity was Albert Ayler’s first recording for New York lawyer, turned record label owner, Bernard Stollman’s ESP-Disk. Over 40 years on it remains a landmark recording. In the company of bass player Gary Peacock and drummer Sunny Murray, Ayler lays down his new testament of jazz with a set that sent the engineer famously scurrying out of the studio. The power, ecstasy and originality of Spiritual Unity remains as fresh, exciting and new as the day it was recorded with Ayler pouring out his soul through his instrument while Peacock and Murray provide powerful, unobtrusive back up that adds extra colour and dimension to the proceedings. Although it has been reissued numerous times before, if you still don’t own a copy of this seminal date then now is most definitely the time. Edwin Pouncey

 

Free JazzFree Jazz

Atlantic

Ornette Coleman (as), Freddie Hubbard, Don Cherry (t), Eric Dolphy (b cl), Scott LaFaro, Charlie Haden (b), Ed Blackwell and Billy Higgins (d). Rec. 1960

Taken together, the five sets that start with 1959’s The Shape Of Jazz To Come and conclude with 1962’s Ornette! still make for something of a shock to the system decades later for two simple reasons: the cast iron strength of character of Coleman as a soloist, which also holds true for his accompanists, who are actually more like co-pilots; and the absolute boldness of the writing which both confirms the vitality of the “avant-garde” or “new music” and makes the crucial point that its central development away from bebop’s clearly mapped chords and set meters took it “back” to early blues and country as well as forward to an undefined idiomatic space. Ultimately, Coleman’s talent is for making music that is as complex as it is primal. And not affected. The Free Jazz album by the double quartet is striking for the increased sonic range provided by such as Eric Dolphy and Freddie Hubbard as well as the sheer drama of its collective whoop and holler, though the performance arguably has less appeal than the music by the smaller groups. Kevin Le Gendre

 

Wes MontgomeryThe Incredible Jazz Guitar of Wes Montgomery

Riverside

Wes Montgomery (g), Tommy Flanagan (p), Percy Heath (b) and Albert Heath (d). Rec. 1960

The Incredible Jazz Guitar of Wes Montgomery, with Tommy Flanagan and the brothers Percy and Tootie Heath, was the album which introduced Wes to the world. It was recorded in New York in January 1960, when Wes was already 35 and with all his astounding skills in full working order. He would sometimes claim that he had been a much better player ten years earlier. Nevertheless, the wisdom of his soulful thumb-picked lines and the technical mastery of his chordal and octave choruses shook the jazz world rigid, the guitar community in particular. The silken speed of ‘Airegin’, the sumptuous balladry of ‘Polka Dots and Moonbeams’ and the waltztime funk of ‘West Coast Blues’ are impressive still. Jack Massarik

 

Cecil TaylorCecil Taylor - At The Café Montmartre

Debut

Taylor (p), Jimmy Lyons (as) and Sunny Murray (d). Rec. 1962

Such is the overwhelming idiosyncrasy of Taylor’s language it’s easy to overlook the fact that it was not created in a vacuum. He had to come from ‘somewhere’ and draw on established sources. Like all originals, he had influences and inspirations. Hence these performances from an early 1960s European trio tour are vital in affording that insight and do not disappoint. Although the incessantly probing, poundingly percussive approach to the keyboard is already a signe particulier, Taylor’s debt to the founding fathers, from Johnson and Tatum to Nichols and Powell, is clear in the more conventional rhythmic-harmonic moments where swing and changes are relatively easy to follow, though they are like flashes such is the speed of execution. In any case there is something deliciously subversive about hearing Taylor’s riptide interpretation of an American songbook staple such as ‘What’s New?’, in which the romanticism is inflamed rather than extinguished, whereas the wider point about the pianist’s aesthetic – melody is as effective in the bass as it is in the treble or mid – is consistently made throughout the set. Alto saxophonist Jimmy Lyons and drummer Sunny Murray stake a claim as some of the best accompanists Taylor ever had, especially the former for the sheer pungent strength of his tone, while bassist Kurt Lundstrom is an effective guest on the bonus track from a gig at the Golden Circle. Kevin Le Gendre

 

Maiden VoyageMaiden Voyage

Blue Note

Freddie Hubbard (t), George Coleman (ts), Herbie Hancock (p), Ron Carter (b) and Tony Williams (d). Rec. 1965

All the way through his time with Miles Davis, Herbie Hancock continued to record under his own name, (as well as with other leaders such as Bobby Hutcherson, Lee Morgan and Wayne Shorter). This was his first true concept album, designed - as Herbie wrote at the time - to 'capture the vastness and majesty’ of the sea, including 'the graceful beauty of the playful dolphins, the constant struggle for survival of even the tiniest sea creatures, and the awesome destructive power of the hurricane.' Maybe most of us have forgotten that liner note, and Nora Kelly's specially written story that went with it, but we all know the music - ranging from the title track to 'The Eye of the Hurricane’ and 'Dolphin Dance’. Alyn Shipton

 

Gertz GilbertoGetz/Gilberto

Verve

Stan Getz (ts), Joao Gilberto (v, g), Antonio Carlos Jobim (p), Tommy Williams (b), Milton Banana (perc) and Astrud Gilberto (v). Rec. 1963

We’re talking Stateside in the early 1960s and in much the same way that The Beatles’ first album spawned a whole generation of American wannabes, the unprecedented success of Getz’s foray into the realms of bossa nova (‘jazz samba’) not only motivated almost as many bandwagon jumpers, but added a whole new genre to the contemporary jazz vocabulary. This official remastered 50th anniversary reissue (containing both mono and stereo versions) confirms that half-a-century on his bossa nova recordings have never been bettered and still sound freshly minted. As with Miles’ Kind Of Blue, there can hardly be any Jazzwise devotees who aren’t familiar with both this sensuous material and the equally sensuous sound of Stanley’s saxophone. End of commercial. Roy Carr

 

Black SaintThe Black Saint And The Sinner Lady

Impulse!

Rolf Ericson, Richard Williams (t), Quentin Jackson (tb), Don Butterfield (tba), Jerome Richardson (fl, ss, bar s), Dick Hafer (fl, ts), Charlie Mariano (as), Jaki Byard (p), Jay Berliner (g), Charles Mingus (b, p) and Dannie Richmond (d). Rec. 1963

The Black Saint is widely acknowledged as a Mingus masterpiece. Part of Mingus’ compositional plan involved hidden repeats of various taped sections and covert (i.e. unadmitted) overdubbing, largely consisting of bringing back Mariano to add a further improvised line to roughly one-third of the album. The overall achievement, however, combined some of Mingus’ most distinctive preoccupations (Ellington, Afro-Spanish music, improv and collective improv) into a set unlike anything else he ever achieved. Of course, it relied hugely on contributions from the sidemen – Richmond, Mariano (who perhaps never played better), Jackson (with plunger mute) and the surprise choice of finger-style session man Berliner. Brian Priestley

 

Tony WilliamsEmergency!

Polydor

Tony Williams (d), Larry Young (org) and John McLaughlin (g). Rec. 1969

 This bold attempt to expand the boundaries of jazz in a dramatic jazz, blues, rock, Hendrix, MC5 amalgam left temperate listeners shell shocked and critics speechless. Today, the mere mention of jazz-rock prompts cries from establishment critics of “sell-out,” but if this is selling-out, then maybe they should consider another line of work. This is jazz, rhythm and electricity writ large in a tumbling roller coaster of ideas. No wonder the album was called Emergency, with every member of the band having so much to say but so little time to say it. Stuart Nicholson

 

 

GetzFocus

Verve

Stan Getz (ts), Roy Haynes (d), chamber string group and Hershey Kay (cond). Rec. 1961

Focus was always Getz’s favourite album and it’s easy to see why. From the open­ing drama of ‘I’m Late, I’m Late’ with Roy Haynes’ scurrying brushes, Getz is on his mettle, inserting his sublime extemporisa­tions into Sauter’s attractive structures. Getz had commissioned Sauter, an arranger best known for his work with the Benny Goodman orchestra, to write what amounts to a seven-part suite. Although there is no obvious linking theme, Sauter said he saw the individual pieces as individual stories or fairy tales.

As Dave Geliy makes clear in his biography of Getz, nothing quite like this had been done before by anyone, let alone by Getz himself. Armed only with a basic score, Getz was to improvise what amounted to his own commentary on Sauter’s music, offering far more than mere embellishment, way away from the conventional re-shaping of a 32-bar popular song or a 12-bar blues. Nor is this kind of orchestral collaboration to be compared to the ‘with strings' approach typified by Bird’s dalliances, for that also was based on re-workings of popular songs. Nor, for that matter, is there any sense here of ennui, of the strings cluttering up the place.

Focus is a true collaboration, operatic in its scope, between composer and performer, and between orchestra and soloist. It marks the moment when Getz transcended the normal workaday world of the jazz soloist and confirmed his status as an artist of consequence. Jaunty at times, tender at others, there is beauty in every bar. A must-have. Peter Vacher

 

Sketches of SpainSketches Of Spain

Columbia

Miles Davis (t, flhn), orchestra and Gil Evans (cond, arr). Rec. 1960

1958’s Porgy And Bess was the jazziest of the Miles-and-Gil collaborations, while its predecessor Miles Ahead was the most innovative and groundbreaking, in its concerto format and breadth of material. Sketches Of Spain is the masterpiece that leaves all possible comment falling short and the contents falling outside of most categories before or since. In the second half of the 1950s, a lot of talk and work went into trying to create the “third stream” of jazz-meets-classical-and-lives-happily-after. Compared to its few relatively acceptable remnants, Sketches dwarfs the theory and stands on its own. It’s also one of the great incarnations of “modal jazz”, both in parts of the ‘Concierto de Aranjuez’ and the rest of the more folk-derived material. Best of all, you don’t think (except during the majestic ‘Saeta’) in terms of tourist-image Spain. Brian Priestley

 

ColtraneImpressions

Impulse!

John  Coltrane (ss, ts), Eric Dolphy (bcl, as), McCoy Tyner (p), Reggie Workman, Art Davis, Jimmy Garrison (b) and Elvin Jones (d). Rec. 1961 and 1963

This was Coltrane’s second scoop into the Aladdin’s cave of music he’d made at the Village Vanguard in November 1961. The first, released as At The Village Vanguard in 1962, had whipped up a storm of criticism and, through the blues ‘Chasin’ The Trane’, served notice to a new generation about the music to come. This one went even further – India threw open the floodgates to the east in jazz, while ‘Impressions’ is 14 minutes of solid gold inspiration from Trane and Elvin. The 1963 studio fillers, ‘Up Against The Wall’ and ‘After The Rain’, are two exquisite musical punctuation points. Keith Shadwick

 

Point of DeparturePoint of Departure

Blue Note

Andrew Hill (p), Kenny Dorham (t), Eric Dolphy (f, as, bcl), Joe Henderson (ts, f), Richard Davis (b) and Tony Williams (d). Rec. 1964

Andrew Hill's masterpiece is one of the genuine classics of 60s jazz. On paper, Eric Dolphy looks the most naturally suited of the three hornman to interpreting Hill’s original vision, but Kenny Dorham and Joe Henderson find their own highly effective ways into the music, while Richard Davis’ subtely wrought (and now rather more cleanly reproduced) bass work and the late Tony Williams’ polyrhythmic drumming round out a fabulously uncompromising session. Michael Kelly

 

 

Rollins The BridgeThe Bridge

RCA Victor

Sonny Rollins (ts), Jim Hall (g), Bob Cranshaw (b), Ben Riley and Harry Saunders (d). Rec. 1962

Recorded in the same year as What’s New with some of the same personnel this marked Rollins' return after a three year sabbatical. 'I was getting very famous at the time,’ he explained ‘and I felt I needed to brush up on various aspects of my craft. I felt I was getting too much, too soon, so I said, wait a minute, I’m going to do it my way. I wasn't going to let people push me out there, so I could fall down. I wanted to get myself together, on my own. I used to practise on the Bridge, the Williamsburg Bridge because I was living on the Lower East Side at the time.' Later in the decade Rollins would begin to experiment in ways that he had not undertaken before but here he confines himself to pushing the envelope in terms of expression rather than technique or form. Hence he invested in emotional terms on 'God Bless the Child' for example, producing one of his most heartfelt improvisations. The collaboration with Jim Hall also adds texture and improvising complexity to this record, which has helped this album remain fresh to this day.

 

Sun RaThe Heliocentric Worlds of Sun Ra Volume 1

ESP-Disk

Sun Ra (p, mba, cel, perc), Chris Capers (t), Teddy Nance (tb), Bernard Pettaway (b tb), Danny Davis (f, as), Marshall Allen (picc, as, perc), Robert Cummings (bcl, perc), John Gilmore (ts, perc), Pat Patrick (bs, perc), Ronnie Boykins (b) and Jimhmi Johnson (perc). Rec. 1965

Heliocentric Worlds Volumes 1 and 2 steps beyond the border of accepted jazz playing to enter into another musical realm. There, the influence of such 20th century contemporary composers such as Edgar Varese, Stockhausen and Harry Partch can be distantly heard shuffling around in the mix. At the helm of these incredible sessions, however, is Sun Ra himself who, in his role as cosmic band leader and orchestrator, pushes and pulls his assembled Arkestra through a series of challenging and innovative musical hoops without ever losing direction or purpose. The playing throughout still sounds incredibly futuristic and exciting with Gilmore, Allen, Patrick and Boykins burning bright over Ra’s super-nova keyboard explosions. Edwin Pouncey

 

 

ExtrapolationExtrapolation

Marmalade

John McLaughlin (g), John Surman (bs, ss), Brian Odges (b) and Tony Oxley (d). Rec. 1969

The 1960s was a decade when British jazz emerged with a strong identity with classic albums from the likes of Mike Westbrook, Michael Garrick, Don Rendell-lan Carr Quintet and Mike Gibbs to name but a few. But Extrapolation is the most prophetic, not only as a stepping stone in McLaughlin's career - from Extrapolation to Tony Williams’ Lifetime to Bitches Brew to the Mahavishnu Orchestra are indeed surprisingly small strides - but for how change in jazz in the late 1960s and early 1970s would shape up. This mixture of freedom (often “time, no changes”) and structure as well as the increasing sense of identity in McLaughlin's playing framed by Surman and Oxley make for compelling listening. Stuart Nicholson

 

KarmaKarma

Impulse!

Pharoah Sanders (ts) Leon Thomas (v, perc), James Spaulding (fl), Julius Watkins (Fr hn), Lonnie Liston Smith (p), Richard Davis, Reggie Workman, Ron Carter (b), Freddie Waits, William Hart (d) and Nathaniel Betis (perc). Rec. 1969

What a sleeve! The saxophonist’s meditative pose against a hazy burnt orange sun posits Karma as a healing sound for love children alarmed by the bomb, the bullet and the ballot. Coming out of the universal consciousness of mentor John Coltrane and borrowing some of the celestial majesty of his widow Alice, Sanders gets modal-hymnal on the enduring ‘The Creator Has A Master Plan’ and dazzlingly abstract on ‘Colors’. These heady cosmic grooves fed the creative fire of anyone from Roy Ayers to Lonnie Liston Smith in the 1970s and inspired the more discerning purveyors of pro-tools instrumental music such as The Cinematic Orchestra in the millennium. Kevin Le Gendre

 

AscensionAscension

Impulse!

John Coltrane (ts), Freddie Hubbard, Dewey Johnson (t), John Tchicai, Marion Brown (as), Archie Shepp, Pharoah Sanders (ts), McCoy Tyner (p), Jimmy Garrison (b) and Elvin Jones (d). Rec. 1965

Still an unruly, flawed, controversial, and deeply divisive album 40 years after its initial release, Ascension set the pace and the tone of the avant-garde music debate right through the back of the 1960s, quickly becoming a cutting-edge touchstone across the arts - even John Lennon told interviewers “of course I’ve heard Ascension" when asserting his late 1960s intellectual credentials alongside Yoko. Today, the music remains testingly difficult, the hell-hot fire and chaos from Trane’s supporting musicians a clear indication of the times it was made in, yet it’s a titanic date that changed jazz forever. Keith Shadwick

 

A Jackson in your HouseA Jackson in Your House

BYG/Actuel

Art Ensemble of Chicago: Lester Bowie (t, flhn, perc), Roscoe Mitchell (ss, as, bs, cl, fl, whistles, steel drum, perc), Joseph Jarman (ss, as, cl, oboe, mba, siren, g) and Malachi Favors (b, el b, banjo, log drum and perc). Rec. 1969

Sometimes the torrent of recordings from the Art Ensemble of Chicago and Archie Shepp, all made in France in the summer of 1969, seems to be a race to see who can make the most records. The AEC won, but only because there were four or five of them (depending on whether Don Moye had joined or not), so they not only made records as the AEC for at least four labels but appeared on a multitude of records led by other players. Jackson includes some typical AEC nonsense and clowning, the three tunes that madeup the original vinyl first side reaching slapstick levels at times. Side two of the vinyl original, however, is very powerful, combining into one unbroken performance of Jarman reading of one of his best poems, 'Ericka', with a deeply felt lament for Charles Clark, phenomenal bassist with Jarman's original Quartet who died suddenly in Chicago that summer of a brain haemorrhage. Don't miss this one. Keith Shadwick

 

Song for my FatherSong For My Father

Blue Note

Horace Silver (p), Blue Mitchell, Carmell Jones (t), Junior Cook, Joe Henderson (ts), Gene Taylor, Teddy Smith (b), Roy Brooks and Roger Humphries (d). Rec. 1963-64

Long in the making but even longer in its outreach of influence, this classic, made in 1963-4, oversaw Silver’s change from the Mitchell-Cook and to that fronted by Joe Henderson with, firstly, Carmell Jones and latterly Woody Shaw. So many flashpoints on this one but it’s still worth remembering that the title cut was good enough to attract Steely Dan to its flame for ‘Rikki Don’t Lose That Number’. Keith Shadwick

 

 

Far East SuiteFar East Suite

Bluebird/RCA 

Duke Ellington (p) and his orchestra. Rec. 1966

With Sony giving the RCA Victor catalogue the same treatment as the Columbia/ Legacy series, there could hardly be a better place to start than the Far East Suite (or indeed Mingus’s Tijuana Moods, see below). It’s music that can be seen as capitalising on the modal and world-music trends of 1960s jazz, which Ellington had already done much to foreshadow, but it manages to balance this aspect with archetypical sounds from the band and its soloists. The vehicles for Gonsalves, Hodges, Hamilton (‘Ad Lib on Nippon’), Carney (‘Agra’), Brown (‘Amad’) and the pianist himself are among the best they were ever offered, and they respond in kind. You could say this reviewer is too close to the Far East Suite for objectivity – heard much of it in concert before it was even recorded, transcribed all of it, frequently played it live and facilitated other live performances – but all that convinces me the album is one of the jewels of Ellington’s late period. Brian Priestley 

 

Machine GunMachine Gun

FMP

Peter Brötzmann (ts, bar s), Evan Parker, Willem Breuker (ts), Fred Van Hove (p), Peter Kowald, Buschi Niebergall (b), Han Bennink and Sven Johansson (d). Rec. May 1968

To say Machine Gun is a heavy session would be somewhat more than understatement. Even now its untrammelled power and audacity are breathtaking and barely rivalled even by the most extreme ‘noise’ or rock. Barging shoulder-first through the door Coltrane had opened three years earlier with his ecstatic blow-out, Ascension, Brötzmann assembled an all-European octet including fellow improv pioneers Evan Parker, pianist Fred Van Hove and drummer Han Bennink, and laid down not only the first major European free jazz record but also the blueprint for all subsequent slash-and-burn skronk. Daniel Spicer

 

Four for TraneFour For Trane

Impulse!

Archie Shepp (ts, arr), Alan Shorter (flhn), Roswell Rudd (tb), John Tchicai (as), Reggie Workman (b) and Charles Moffett (d). Rec. 1964

Shepp was a member of Cecil Taylor’s 1960/1 unit that cut sides for Candid and Impulse!, but his first mature playing on disc is on the virtually unobtainable 1962 Archie Shepp - Bill Dixon Quartet album released on Savoy. Four For Trane demonstrates not only a shift in allegiance to Coltrane but a real gift for arrangement and a thoroughly original approach to his own playing at a time when everyone was copying Trane or Rollins. He may have got more radical later, but this was a 100 per cent proof shot of the new on its initial release. Keith Shadwick 

 

Individualism of Gil EvansThe Individualism of Gil Evans

Verve

Gil Evans (p, arr, comp) with, among others, Johnny Coles, Ernie Royal, Thad Jones, Bernie Glow (t), Frank Rehak, Jimmy Cleveland (tb), Julius Watkins, Bob Northern (Fr h), Bill Barber (tba), Steve Lacy (ss), Eric Dolphy (f, as, bcl), Wayne Shorter (ts), Garvin Bushell, Jerome Richardson (reeds), Kenny Burrell (g), Milt Hinton, Paul Chambers, Gary Peacock, Ron Carter (b) and Elvin Jones (d). Rec. 1963-4

A diffident self-promoter, Evans was only rarely coaxed into the recording studios to deliver albums that reflected fully his own musical visions away from the stars he wrapped in his sonic delights. This album is his most ambitious and deeply satisfying, covering his love of Kurt Weiil, the blues, Spanish music and swaggering self-penned pieces, all of them dripping in the translucent arrangements that make you feel you’ve entered a uniquely magical musical land the moment the orchestra makes a sound. Seamlessly featuring soloists like Wayne Shorter, Johnny Coles and Phil Woods, this album is pure musical alchemy from a total original. The CD is a happily expanded version of the original vinyl, adding 27 minutes of excellent previously unreleased new music. Keith Shadwick

 

John HandyJohn Handy - Live At Monterey Jazz Festival

Columbia

John Handy (as), Mike White (el vn), Jerry Hahn (g), Don Thompson (b) and Terry Clarke (d). Rec. 1965

This was Handy's breakthrough album. After slaving at the pit-face in New York, playing with Mingus then heading back to San Francisco in 1963, he built a local reputation that included headlining gigs at the Fillmore and which came to a head at the Monterey Jazz Festival in 1965. The tapes of the set were eventually released on Columbia and made an instant impression. Handy was of the moment and spent a few years in the sun internationally before it all went pear-shaped around 1968 and he lost his band, record deal and profile. Handy in those years had rare qualities that combined to make him unique and nothing has changed to deprive him of that uniqueness since. He has a beautiful tone, faultless technique, great expressive range and a very inquiring musical mind. In 1965 this led him to the sax-violin-guitar front line that made this band so special at the time and so prophetic of the jazz of later decades. He also had sufficient formal training to sustain large structures like the two pieces here from the festival, one 27 minutes long, the other just short of 20 minutes. These are not simply long, rambling improvisations by guys lining up in an orderly queue; they are properly thought-through performances of considerable sophistication. This is why they were such a hit at the time: they had drama and they told a gripping musical story. Keith Shadwick

 

Stan TraceyJazz Suite Inspired By Dylan Thomas’ Under Milk Wood

EMI/Columbia

Stan Tracey (p), Bobby Wellins (ts), Jeff Clyne (b) and Jackie Dougan (d). Rec. 8 May 1965

Stan Tracey’s timeless tour de force Jazz Suite – Inspired by Dylan Thomas’ Under Milk Wood is for many the pianist’s finest hour, and has often been described as one of the greatest British jazz albums ever made. Its release in September 1965, to a tremendous reception, helped steer British jazz towards a wider, more mainstream audience, its mix of rich lyricism and small hours ambience crackled like an unofficial soundtrack to 1960s London, and it still resonates as strongly today. It’s widely acknowledged that Tracey always played down his achievements, but Under Milk Wood is an album that refuses to be played down, a record that will resonate for another 50 years, and beyond. Mark Youll

 

Speak No EvilSpeak No Evil

Blue Note

Wayne Shorter (ts), Freddie Hubbard (t), Herbie Hancock (p), Ron Carter (b) and Elvin Jones (d). Rec. 1964

In tandem with his contemporaneous contributions to Miles Davis’ 60s Quintet, Wayne Shorter’s sequence of albums for Blue Note produced the most satisfying music of his career, and threw up two or three bona fide classics of 1960s jazz. This quintet session is pre-eminent among them, capturing Shorter’s enigmatic compositional genius and highly original delivery on tenor saxophone (it predates his later predilection for soprano) in superb fashion. As on Out To Lunch, Freddie Hubbard works against the standard stereotype of his style to great effect, and the rhythm section of Herbie Hancock, Ron Carter and Elvin Jones is unimpeachable. Kenny Mathieson 

 

Rip Rig and PanicRip, Rig & Panic

Limelight

Roland Kirk (f, mzo, stritch, ts), Jaki Byard (p), Richard Davis (b) and Elvin Jones (d). Rec. 1965

Possibly Roland Kirk's best album, helped by a rhythm section to die for - Jaki Byard on piano, the great Richard Davis on bass and Elvin Jones on drums. This is a record that everyone should own. It’s unbelievably powerful and any lingering doubts about Kirk as an improviser dissipate over its seven tracks. The closing track ‘Mystical Dream’ features him on three horns, this time including oboe. Can you imagine the embouchure problems that would present? Rahsaan gives a history lesson and masterclass in jazz saxophone playing. Trane’s in there, Ben Webster, Don Byas, Bechet and Lester Young. A truly wonderful album. 

  

Night TrainNight Train

Verve

Oscar Peterson (p), Ray Brown b) and Ed Thigpen (d). Rec. 1962

Night Train has long been regarded as a high water mark in the pianist’s recording career. Recorded in 1962, it finds these three men at a pinnacle of mutual understanding and simulation, and Peterson at his most inspired when it comes to converting a disparate collection of material into a homogeneous and affectionate look back to a previous era. Keith Shadwick

 

 

 

Dream WeaverDream Weaver

Atlantic

Charles Lloyd (ts, f), Keith Jarrett (p), Cecil McBee (b) and Jack DeJohnette (d). Rec. 1966

Voted "new star” by Downbeat in 1965, the emergence of the Charles Lloyd Quartet took jazz by storm in 1966, expanding musical horizons with a challenging eclectic amalgam of modal and free jazz with Eastern textures and Spanish soul. Dream Weaver also introduced Keith Jarrett and Jack DeJohnette to the world before Lloyd's subsequent LPs Forest Flower and Love-In became two of jazz’s biggest sellers. However, this was the album that first got tongues wagging, echoing the free spirit of the psychedelic 1960s and landing them an early slot at The Fillmore. Miles noticed too, quickly snatching Jarrett and DeJohnette for his own jazz/rock experiments that ushered in the dawn of a new era. Jon Newey

 

Blues and the Abstract TruthThe Blues And The Abstract Truth

Impulse!

Oliver Nelson (as, ts), Freddie Hubbard (t), Eric Dolphy (f, as, bcl), George Barrow (bar s), Bill Evans (p), Paul Chambers (b) and Roy Haynes (d). Rec. 1961

 Perhaps, only with the passing of time is it possible to evaluate the true value of great works of art – in this instance, Oliver Nelson’s personal masterpiece 1960’s The Blues And The Abstract Truth. Along with Miles’ Kind Of Blue, Coltrane’s Giant Steps, Ornette’s Change Of The Century and Mingus Ah Um, Nelson’s The Blues And The Abstract Truth remains one of the truly indispensible albums of that era… and well beyond. While not quite so memorable as a stop-you-dead-in-your-tracks tenor sax titan, Nelson’s true gift was as a composer/arranger of extraordinary ability. Here, utilising just three solo horns – Hubbard, Dolphy and himself (George Barrow’s baritone was only employed in ensembles), Nelson created an abundance of uniquely rich textures on such diverse compositions as ‘Hoe Down’ , ‘Cascades’ and the title track which often gave the illusion of being performed by a far larger unit. Throughout, both Hubbard and Dolphy turn in virtuoso performances while surprisingly a somewhat subdued Bill Evans only occasionally makes his presence heard. Down in the engine room, Paul Chambers and Roy Haynes drive each performance with the utmost tact and discretion. Roy Carr

 

Anthony BraxtonFor Alto

Delmark

Anthony Braxton (as). Rec. 1969

While the song titles - dedications to innovative musicians such as John Cage, Cecil Taylor and Leroy Jenkins - gave a clear indication of where the Association For The Advancement Of Creative Musicians iconoclast was coming from, few could have seen where, or rather how far, he was going on this landmark solo recital. Braxton’s alto saxophone is like the sound of acid dripped from the beating wings of hummingbirds, a charmingly corrosive caress. Through brilliant dynamics, lyricism, harmonic invention and pure sound trickery, Braxton showed a single horn could be a complete orchestra, paving the way for similar undertakings by Sonny Rollins among others years later. Kevin Le Gendre

 

AstigmaticAstigmatic

Polskie - Nagrania Muza

Krzysztof Komeda (p), Tomasz Stanko (t), Zbigniew Namyslowski (as), Gunter Lenz (b) and Rune Carlson (d). Rec. 1965

Having formed the first modern jazz group in Poland, Komeda was to become the godfather of what we can now call European jazz. Besides his career as a film composer, he would go on to release just one studio album in his lifetime, but Astigmatic recorded in 1965 is commonly heralded as a ‘classic’ of jazz from Europe, a poetically progressive modernist recording that created a new Polish School of Jazz with its use of Slavic lyricism and elements of native classical and folk traditions. Selwyn Harris

 

Indo-Jazz SuiteIndo-Jazz Suite

EMI Columbia

Joe Harriott (as), Kenny Wheeler (t), Pat Smythe (p), Coleridge Goode (b), Allan Ganley (d), John Mayer (vn, harpsichord), Chris Taylor (f), Diwan Motihar (sitar), Chandrahas Paiganka (tambura) and Keshan Sathe (tabla). Rec. 1965

On Indo-Jazz Suite’s release in 1966 its four tracks – ‘Overture’, ‘Contrasts’, ‘Raga Megha’ and ‘Raga Gaud-Saranga’ – freeze-framed something in Indo-jazz fusion that was unique to Britain. The States may have had ‘happening’ notables like Don Ellis but never a John Mayer or a Joe Harriott. Mayer was a Calcutta-raised composer-violinist as equally at home in Hindustani classical and Indian vernacular forms as he was in Western classical and popular music forms. Kingston, Jamaica-born altoist Harriott was a jazzer who took the jazz path rather than the jazz-into-ska route. Ken Hunt

 

Let Freedom RingLet Freedom Ring

Blue Note

Jackie McLean (as), Walter Davis (p), Herbie Lewis (b) and Billy Higgins (d). Rec. 1962

Doubtless this is the first Blue Note album to reflect the 1960s avant garde. But it’s equally important to remember some of the portents in McLean’s own late-50s recordings, such as the Ornettish ‘Quadrangle’ from Jackie’s Bag or the modal blues of New Soil's 'Hip Strut’. Here, without any other front­ line instrument, he lets it all hang out in four long pieces, with the epic ‘Melody For Melonae’ lasting more than 13 min­utes. Not possessing the fluency of Coltrane, the inspiration for such a piece, McLean mirrors Trane's intensity with bluesy intonations, high register screams and, at one point, a honk on the alto’s bottom note - not so easy or so often heard as on tenor. It’s true that incoherence beckons, as on the intriguing 'Omega’ which has Herbie Lewis in possibly unconscious imitation of Yusef Lateef's bassist Ernie Farrow playing a north African instrument. However, the drive and invention of Davis and especially Higgins keep the pressure on and in addition, the feelingful performance of a Bud Powell ballad, ‘I’ll Keep Loving You’, rounds off an unforgettable session. Brian Priestley

 

Liberation Music OrchestraLiberation Music Orchestra

Impulse!

Charlie Haden (b), Don Cherry, Michael Mantler (t), Roswell Rudd (tb), Bob Northern (Fr hn), Howard Johnson (tba), Perry Robinson (cl), Gato Barbieri, Dewey Redman (ts), Sam Brown (g), Carla Bley (p, arr), Paul Motian and Andrew Cyrille (d). Rec. 1969

Jazz and politics have always been entwined, but rarely in the music’s history have the links spelt out on record. The 1960s was a decade when that orthodoxy was reversed, with Charlie Haden's debut album at the decade's end being one of the most explicit endorsements of leftist sentiments to be found in the entire jazz world. Sentiments of any persuasion are no proof of quality, but the compositions - from Haden, Bley and Ornette Coleman, among others - are uniformly strong and the supporting cast fiercely inspired. For 40 minutes you could believe, if you wanted to. Keith Shadwick

 

Jazz pa SvenskaJazz På Svenska

Megafon

Jan Johansson (p) and Georg Riedel (b). Rec. 1962-64

In the 1960s Jan Johansson recorded a series of jazz versions of Swedish folkloric material that were subsequently released as Jazz på Svenska (‘Jazz in Swedish). It would provide the inspiration for a significant area of Nordic jazz and to this day is the best selling jazz album in Sweden. Its release was timely. Since the end of the Second World War, Sweden had eagerly followed the American model of consumerism, from white goods to movies, from jazz to literature. The Vietnam war brought on an identity crisis – was Sweden an American state marching towards urban conformity or was it a proud nation in its own right? Jazz på Svenska fitted in with this new national mood, and is still played regularly on the radio today. It also defined Johansson, who was Stan Getz’s accompanist of choice when he lived in Sweden then Denmark, able to play in a forthright bop style favoured by the saxophonist. However, on Jazz på Svenska we hear a different Johansson where his melodic construction, space, intensity and an unhurried approach to improvisation would help shape a Nordic sensibility in jazz known as the Nordic Tone. Stuart Nicholson

 

And his mother called him Bill...And His Mother Called Him Bill

Bluebird/RCA 

Duke Ellington (p) and his orchestra. Rec. 1967

 Only a fool can afford to ignore the commercial basis that underpins reality in the recorded music industry. But let's suspend such reality checks for a moment and indulge in a spot of jazz Utopianism. Why? Well, this is one of those records that would ideally be continually available for the world to wonder at, learn from and come to love.

It is always in the process of being deleted or reissued somewhere or other in the world, and the fact that it elicits a small but steady demand must be some consolation for the idealist buried inside us all. Ellington made a great many records in his long career, not all of them memorable or even hits. But this 1967 tribute to, and lament for, Billy Strayhorn is indisputably a latter-day peak. Charged with freshly felt grief - Strayhorn had died just three months prior to these sessions - and focused on some of his late musical partner’s greatest contributions to the Ellington book, this record builds up an intensity and character that represents all the best elements of Duke's orchestra in its final glory. Ellington was more than just an elegant, urbane figurehead: throughout his career he was a vital creative force in the music. Here's the proof. Keith Shadwick

 

Now read: The 100 Jazz Albums That Shook The World

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